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In 63.7% of the schools, there were toilets on each floor for students, 63.3% of these toilets had toilet paper, most of them had waste bins (89%) and liquid/foam soap (98.5%), but the numbers of handheld paper towels (47.7%) and hand dryers (2.1%) were found to be low (Table 3). Table 4 shows whether the schools had a recommended number of sinks and toilets according to the Turkish standards. According to this, only 42.3% of the schools had enough toilets for female students, while 72.8% had enough toilets for male students. According to the total number of students, the ratio of toilets in schools was lower for both female and male students in the central district schools. The ratio of sinks in schools according to the number of students was better than the ratio of toilets (87.7% for girls and 85.7% for boys), and these rates were also lower in the central district schools. On the other hand, it was seen that 92.5% of the schools did not have the recommended number of toilets for female teachers, while 82.8% had the recommended number for male teachers, and therefore, female teachers were more disadvantaged (Table 4).

Table 3

Hygienic conditions of student toilets in schools according to location (n=480)

Central districts
Rural districts
Total
n%n%n%
Toilet on each floor 
 Available 150 67.6 156 60.5 306 63.7 
 Not available 72 32.4 102 39.5 174 36.3 
Toilet paper in cubicles 
 Available 144 64.9 160 62.0 304 63.3 
 Not available 78 35.1 98 38.0 176 36.7 
Waste bins in cubicles 
 Available 205 92.3 222 86.0 427 89.0 
 Not available 17 7.7 36 14.0 53 11.0 
Liquid/foam soap 
 Available 219 98.6 254 98.4 473 98.5 
 Not available 1.4 1.6 1.5 
Paper towel for drying hands 
 Available 118 53.2 111 43.0 229 47.7 
 Not available 104 46.8 147 57.0 251 52.3 
Hand dryer 
 Available 3.6 0.8 10 2.1 
 Not available 214 96.4 256 99.2 470 97.9 
Cleaning frequency 
 After each recess 114 51.4 105 40.7 219 45.6 
 2–3 times a day 87 39.2 110 42.6 197 41.1 
 One time a day 21 9.4 43 16.7 64 13.3 
Central districts
Rural districts
Total
n%n%n%
Toilet on each floor 
 Available 150 67.6 156 60.5 306 63.7 
 Not available 72 32.4 102 39.5 174 36.3 
Toilet paper in cubicles 
 Available 144 64.9 160 62.0 304 63.3 
 Not available 78 35.1 98 38.0 176 36.7 
Waste bins in cubicles 
 Available 205 92.3 222 86.0 427 89.0 
 Not available 17 7.7 36 14.0 53 11.0 
Liquid/foam soap 
 Available 219 98.6 254 98.4 473 98.5 
 Not available 1.4 1.6 1.5 
Paper towel for drying hands 
 Available 118 53.2 111 43.0 229 47.7 
 Not available 104 46.8 147 57.0 251 52.3 
Hand dryer 
 Available 3.6 0.8 10 2.1 
 Not available 214 96.4 256 99.2 470 97.9 
Cleaning frequency 
 After each recess 114 51.4 105 40.7 219 45.6 
 2–3 times a day 87 39.2 110 42.6 197 41.1 
 One time a day 21 9.4 43 16.7 64 13.3 
Table 4

Availability of sufficient number of toilets and sinks for students and teachers according to the localization of the schools

Central districts
Rural districts
Total
n%n%n%
Number of female student toilets (n=468) 
 Sufficient 77 35.8 121 47.8 198 42.3 
 Insufficient 138 64.2 132 52.2 270 57.7 
Number of male student toilets (n=467) 
 Sufficient 134 63.2 206 80.8 340 72.8 
 Insufficient 78 36.8 49 19.2 127 27.2 
Number of female student sinks (n=471) 
 Sufficient 178 82.4 235 92.2 413 87.7 
 Insufficient 38 17.6 20 7.8 58 12.3 
Number of male student sinks (n=467) 
 Sufficient 170 79.4 230 90.9 400 85.7 
 Insufficient 44 20.6 23 9.1 67 14.3 
Number of female teacher toilets (n=479) 
 Sufficient 12 5.4 24 9.3 36 7.5 
 Insufficient 209 94.6 234 90.7 443 92.5 
Number of male teacher toilets (n=472) 
 Sufficient 40 18.1 41 16.3 81 17.2 
 Insufficient 181 81.9 210 83.7 391 82.8 
Central districts
Rural districts
Total
n%n%n%
Number of female student toilets (n=468) 
 Sufficient 77 35.8 121 47.8 198 42.3 
 Insufficient 138 64.2 132 52.2 270 57.7 
Number of male student toilets (n=467) 
 Sufficient 134 63.2 206 80.8 340 72.8 
 Insufficient 78 36.8 49 19.2 127 27.2 
Number of female student sinks (n=471) 
 Sufficient 178 82.4 235 92.2 413 87.7 
 Insufficient 38 17.6 20 7.8 58 12.3 
Number of male student sinks (n=467) 
 Sufficient 170 79.4 230 90.9 400 85.7 
 Insufficient 44 20.6 23 9.1 67 14.3 
Number of female teacher toilets (n=479) 
 Sufficient 12 5.4 24 9.3 36 7.5 
 Insufficient 209 94.6 234 90.7 443 92.5 
Number of male teacher toilets (n=472) 
 Sufficient 40 18.1 41 16.3 81 17.2 
 Insufficient 181 81.9 210 83.7 391 82.8 

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