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Urban resilience aims to integrate the social, economic, governance, and environmental components, which before were analysed separately, as the four main dimensions that contribute to resilience. A resilient city must have the capacity to absorb, recover, and prepare for future shocks, promoting sustainable development, well-being, and inclusive growth (Sayaas 2016). Cities should adopt social and ecological approaches, including ecological and social feedback, to improve urban resilience (Calderón-Contreras & Quiroz-Rosas 2017). Table 1 presents several resilience concepts, considering different research perspectives, that are considered the main dimensions of urban resilience.

Table 1

Resilience concepts adopted as urban resilience dimensions

ResilienceDefinitionKey-propertiesReference
Organizational Inherent ability to keep or recover a steady-state, thereby allowing to continue normal operations after a disruptive event or in the presence of continuous stress. Recovery Sheffi (2005), in Hosseini et al. (2016)  
Economic Ability of the system to withstand either market or environmental shocks without losing the capacity to allocate resources efficiently. Adaptationcsbarline Persistence Francis & Bekera (2014)  
Ecological Ability of the system to absorb a disturbance, persist in its functions, and adapt. Absorptioncsbarline Persistencecsbarline Adaptation Davoudi et al. (2012)  
Social Ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political, and environmental change. Adaptation Hosseini et al. (2016)  
ResilienceDefinitionKey-propertiesReference
Organizational Inherent ability to keep or recover a steady-state, thereby allowing to continue normal operations after a disruptive event or in the presence of continuous stress. Recovery Sheffi (2005), in Hosseini et al. (2016)  
Economic Ability of the system to withstand either market or environmental shocks without losing the capacity to allocate resources efficiently. Adaptationcsbarline Persistence Francis & Bekera (2014)  
Ecological Ability of the system to absorb a disturbance, persist in its functions, and adapt. Absorptioncsbarline Persistencecsbarline Adaptation Davoudi et al. (2012)  
Social Ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political, and environmental change. Adaptation Hosseini et al. (2016)  

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