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The Nature4Cities project proposed integrated multiscale and multi-thematic urban performance metrics for assessing urban challenges and NBS. These were focused on climate, environment, resources, social, and economic topics. The classification of challenges is slightly different from the EKLIPSE classification. Most of the challenges in EKLIPSE are linked between them or with sub-challenges in this classification (Nature4Cities 2019). The alignment between the EKLIPSE and the Nature4Cities was a starting point for developing the Nature4Cities proposal. This proposal adapts the EKLIPSE urban challenges, focused on climate resilience, at the urban scale. It should be noticed that this framework, like the EKLIPSEs, does not provide a clear definition of metrics and reference values for assessing NBS impacts. The authors highlight that this NBS assessment approach intends to be a comprehensive book of reference of urban performance metrics for the assessment of urban challenges and NBS. Table 6 presents the alignment between the EKLIPSE and the Nature4Cities assessment proposals.

Table 6

Alignment between the EKLIPSE and the Nature4Cities assessment proposal

Nature4Cities
EKLIPSE
TopicsUrban challengesUrban challenges
CLIMATE 1 | Climate issues 1 | Climate mitigation and adaptation 
2 | Water management and quality 2 | Water management 
Environment 3 | Air quality 5 | Air/ambient quality 
4 | Biodiversity and urban space 4 | Green space management (including enhancing/conserving urban biodiversity| 
5 | Soil management 6 | Urban regeneration (partially) 
Resource 6 | Resource efficiency This topic is not assessed. 
Social 7 | Public health and well-being 9 | Public health and well-being 
8 | Environmental justice and social cohesion 8 | Social justice and social cohesion 
9 | Urban planning and governance 6 | Urban regeneration (partially) 7 | Participatory planning and governance 
Economy 10 | People security  
11 | Green economy 10 | Potential for new economic opportunities and green jobs 
 This topic is not assessed. 3 | Coastal resilience 
Nature4Cities
EKLIPSE
TopicsUrban challengesUrban challenges
CLIMATE 1 | Climate issues 1 | Climate mitigation and adaptation 
2 | Water management and quality 2 | Water management 
Environment 3 | Air quality 5 | Air/ambient quality 
4 | Biodiversity and urban space 4 | Green space management (including enhancing/conserving urban biodiversity| 
5 | Soil management 6 | Urban regeneration (partially) 
Resource 6 | Resource efficiency This topic is not assessed. 
Social 7 | Public health and well-being 9 | Public health and well-being 
8 | Environmental justice and social cohesion 8 | Social justice and social cohesion 
9 | Urban planning and governance 6 | Urban regeneration (partially) 7 | Participatory planning and governance 
Economy 10 | People security  
11 | Green economy 10 | Potential for new economic opportunities and green jobs 
 This topic is not assessed. 3 | Coastal resilience 

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