The problem was solved using the solver SBB in GAMS and Table 8 presents the calculated hydraulic variables and the flow directions. The optimized total cost for the WDN was $487,254.78. In this case, it can be noted that the operation cost corresponds to almost 2/3 of the total WDN cost. Table 9 presents the pipes diameter, manometric head of the pumping system, and the network costs. Table 8 Hydraulic variables calculated for the Itororó WDN Pipe/NodeVelocity (m/s)Flow directionPressure (m) 1.25 R-1 25.41 2.13 1-2 27.48 2.03 2-3 28.84 0.75 3-4 28.05 0.68 4-5 28.77 0.46 5-6 24.01 1.10 7-6 22.06 1.32 8-7 15.00 0.44 1-8 33.23 10 0.89 1-9 28.54 11 1.15 9-10 29.28 12 1.48 10-11 25.76 13 0.21 11-12 18.24 14 1.26 3-12 18.50 15 1.63 3-13 20.61 16 1.08 13-14 15.05 17 1.31 14-15 16.72 18 0.97 16-15 19 1.43 17-16 20 0.83 5-17 Pipe/NodeVelocity (m/s)Flow directionPressure (m) 1.25 R-1 25.41 2.13 1-2 27.48 2.03 2-3 28.84 0.75 3-4 28.05 0.68 4-5 28.77 0.46 5-6 24.01 1.10 7-6 22.06 1.32 8-7 15.00 0.44 1-8 33.23 10 0.89 1-9 28.54 11 1.15 9-10 29.28 12 1.48 10-11 25.76 13 0.21 11-12 18.24 14 1.26 3-12 18.50 15 1.63 3-13 20.61 16 1.08 13-14 15.05 17 1.31 14-15 16.72 18 0.97 16-15 19 1.43 17-16 20 0.83 5-17 Table 9 Diameters, manometric high, and costs for the Itororó WDN PipeDiameter (m)PipeDiameter (m) 0.2520 11 0.0756 0.1564 12 0.0534 0.1564 13 0.0534 0.1564 14 0.0756 0.1564 15 0.1084 0.0534 16 0.1084 0.0534 17 0.0756 0.0756 18 0.0534 0.1564 19 0.0756 10 0.1084 20 0.1084 (m) ($)  ($) ($)
25.466 179,816.40 307,438.38 487,254.78
PipeDiameter (m)PipeDiameter (m)
0.2520 11 0.0756
0.1564 12 0.0534
0.1564 13 0.0534
0.1564 14 0.0756
0.1564 15 0.1084
0.0534 16 0.1084
0.0534 17 0.0756
0.0756 18 0.0534
0.1564 19 0.0756
10 0.1084 20 0.1084
(m)  ($) ($)  (\$)
25.466 179,816.40 307,438.38 487,254.78

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