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Human urine (pooled from 13 normal donors, 991-03-P), which is a feed solution, was purchased from Lee Biosolutions, Inc. (MO, USA). The electrical conductivity (EC) and pH of the urine samples were 9.51 mS/cm and 6.14, respectively. Insoluble material in the urine samples after thawing was removed by a precombusted glass fiber filter (0.45 μm pore size, GF/B, Whatman®, UK) at 450 °C for 2 h before the experiments. Synthetic seawater (Sealife, Nihonkaisui Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) was used as a draw solution and adjusted 30% with distilled water. Table 1 lists the details of the content of urine (feed solution) and synthetic seawater (draw solution).

Table 1

Content of the feed and draw solutions

Feed solution (mg L−1)Draw solution (mg L−1)
Ca2+ 65 ± 5.5 420 ± 28 
K+ 1,100 ± 54 350 ± 27 
Mg2+ 33 ± 2.8 1,300 ± 74 
Na+ 14,400 ± 65 10,400 ± 1,030 
NH4+ 230 ± 24 0.46 ± 0.65 
Br 18 ± 3.2 92 ± 21 
Cl 1,800 ± 47 21,000 ± 4,900 
F 36 ± 8.0 N.D. 
PO43− 850 ± 30 N.D. 
NO2 N.D. N.D. 
NO3 38 ± 4.8 N.D. 
SO42− 750 ± 92 4,300 ± 2,300 
DOC 4,600 ± 140 N.A. 
Feed solution (mg L−1)Draw solution (mg L−1)
Ca2+ 65 ± 5.5 420 ± 28 
K+ 1,100 ± 54 350 ± 27 
Mg2+ 33 ± 2.8 1,300 ± 74 
Na+ 14,400 ± 65 10,400 ± 1,030 
NH4+ 230 ± 24 0.46 ± 0.65 
Br 18 ± 3.2 92 ± 21 
Cl 1,800 ± 47 21,000 ± 4,900 
F 36 ± 8.0 N.D. 
PO43− 850 ± 30 N.D. 
NO2 N.D. N.D. 
NO3 38 ± 4.8 N.D. 
SO42− 750 ± 92 4,300 ± 2,300 
DOC 4,600 ± 140 N.A. 

Values show average and standard deviation (n = 3).

N.D., not detected; N.A., not analyzed.

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