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In this study, five influencing parameters (milling rotational speed; milling time; ratio of grinding ball to material (defined as RGM); ratio of grinding balls (defined as RGB); and grinding ball type) concerning milling process and three influencing parameters (initial CIP concentration; pH value; and co-existing inorganic ions) concerning CIP solutions were studied. Variable-controlling approach was employed and the detailed parameters were set up as shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Batch experiments setup

NumberParametersExperimental conditions
milling rotational speed 100 rpm, 200 rpm, 300 rpm, 400 rpm, 500 rpm 
milling time 0 min, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min, 60 min 
ratio of grinding ball to material (RGM) 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 , 5:1 
ratio of grinding balls (RGB) 3:0, 2:1, 1:2, 0:3 
grinding ball type agate ball, ceramic ball, steel ball, zirconia ball 
initial CIP concentration 20 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 200 mg/L 
pH value 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 
co-existing inorganic ions HCO3, Cl, SO42−, NO3 
NumberParametersExperimental conditions
milling rotational speed 100 rpm, 200 rpm, 300 rpm, 400 rpm, 500 rpm 
milling time 0 min, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min, 60 min 
ratio of grinding ball to material (RGM) 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 , 5:1 
ratio of grinding balls (RGB) 3:0, 2:1, 1:2, 0:3 
grinding ball type agate ball, ceramic ball, steel ball, zirconia ball 
initial CIP concentration 20 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 200 mg/L 
pH value 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 
co-existing inorganic ions HCO3, Cl, SO42−, NO3 

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