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The greatest runoff intensity during SCPs was measured on November 11 in 2018 from the GR1 and GR3 (Table 2). At this event the roofs did not have any snow-cover and rain (41.9 mm) was the main source of runoff. The greatest runoff intensity was when snow accumulated on the roofs occurred in mid-April during the SCP of 2012/13 on REF (Table 2 and Figure 4). The runoff was readily generated via snowmelt as only 7 mm of rain was observed.
Table 2

Highest daily runoff in the SCP from the three green roofs and the reference roof (first 5 years of roof 2)

SCP no.09/1010/1111/1212/1313/1414/1515/16a16/1717/1818/19a19/20a
GR1 (mm/d) 35.5 22.9 18.1 31.2 32.9 26.8 29.2 22.8 25.5 46.1 36.6 
GR2 (mm/d) – – – – – 21.4 29.1 23.6 24.6 42.5 36.7 
GR3 (mm/d) 33.8 23.4 21.2 26.9 30.3 22.8 30.1 29.4 25.1 45.5 34.7 
REF (mm/d) 37.4 29.6 30.2 44.8 35.8 – – – – – – 
SCP no.09/1010/1111/1212/1313/1414/1515/16a16/1717/1818/19a19/20a
GR1 (mm/d) 35.5 22.9 18.1 31.2 32.9 26.8 29.2 22.8 25.5 46.1 36.6 
GR2 (mm/d) – – – – – 21.4 29.1 23.6 24.6 42.5 36.7 
GR3 (mm/d) 33.8 23.4 21.2 26.9 30.3 22.8 30.1 29.4 25.1 45.5 34.7 
REF (mm/d) 37.4 29.6 30.2 44.8 35.8 – – – – – – 

aRain on not snow-covered roof.

Figure 4

Runoff from the snowmelt episode in mid-April 2013 was boosted by precipitation as rain. Snow depths on the roofs were 30cm at the beginning of the episode and reached 0cm at approximately 70 h (i.e., GR3) and 80 h (i.e., GR1 and REF). The last peak was an effect of precipitation alone. Even though the GRs are saturated, there is some peak reduction. The total runoff was 15 and 40% less than from GR1 and GR3, respectively, compared to the REF-roof.

Figure 4

Runoff from the snowmelt episode in mid-April 2013 was boosted by precipitation as rain. Snow depths on the roofs were 30cm at the beginning of the episode and reached 0cm at approximately 70 h (i.e., GR3) and 80 h (i.e., GR1 and REF). The last peak was an effect of precipitation alone. Even though the GRs are saturated, there is some peak reduction. The total runoff was 15 and 40% less than from GR1 and GR3, respectively, compared to the REF-roof.

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