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Laboratory confirmatory analysis of POCIS membrane material was conducted using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) techniques at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory (CAHFS) at the University of California, Davis. POCIS data were analyzed qualitatively for the presence or absence of 65 independent analytes (Table 3) from 3 chemical families: carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethrins. Reporting limits for POCIS laboratory analyses are defined as the lowest quantifiable concentration of an analyte in a sample. If the analyte was detected at concentrations below the reporting limit, it was reported as ‘Trace’ and above reporting limits, it was reported as ‘Positive’.

Table 3

Comprehensive list of 65 pesticide analytes grouped by chemical class assessed for qualitative presence/absence monitored by POCIS below known cannabis cultivation sites

CarbamateaPyrethrinbOrganophosphatec
3-Hydroxycarbofuran Allethrin Diazinon Methamidophos Tetrachlorvinphos 
Aldicarb Cyfluthrin Dicrotophos Methidathion Triazophos 
Aldicarb sulfone Cypermethrin Dimethoate Methyl parathion Acephate 
Bendiocarb Fenvalerate Dioxathion Mevinphos Azinphos-methyl 
Carbaryl Permethrin (trans) Disulfoton Monocrotophos Carbophenothion 
Carbofuran Pyrethrins EPN* Naled Chlorfenvinphos 
Methiocarb Phenothrin Ethion Parathion Chlorpyrifos 
Methomyl Fenpropathrin Ethoprop Phorate Coumaphos 
Mexacarbate Bifenthrin Famphur Phosalone Crotoxyphos 
Oxamyl Deltamethrin Fenamiphos Phosmet Crufomate 
Propoxur — Fensulfothion Phosphamidon DDVP (Dichlorovos) 
— — Fenthion Profenophos DEF** 
— — Fonofos Propetamphos Demeton-O 
— — Isofenphos Ronnel Demeton-S 
— — Malathion Terbufos — 
11 Analytes 10 Analytes  44 Analytes  
CarbamateaPyrethrinbOrganophosphatec
3-Hydroxycarbofuran Allethrin Diazinon Methamidophos Tetrachlorvinphos 
Aldicarb Cyfluthrin Dicrotophos Methidathion Triazophos 
Aldicarb sulfone Cypermethrin Dimethoate Methyl parathion Acephate 
Bendiocarb Fenvalerate Dioxathion Mevinphos Azinphos-methyl 
Carbaryl Permethrin (trans) Disulfoton Monocrotophos Carbophenothion 
Carbofuran Pyrethrins EPN* Naled Chlorfenvinphos 
Methiocarb Phenothrin Ethion Parathion Chlorpyrifos 
Methomyl Fenpropathrin Ethoprop Phorate Coumaphos 
Mexacarbate Bifenthrin Famphur Phosalone Crotoxyphos 
Oxamyl Deltamethrin Fenamiphos Phosmet Crufomate 
Propoxur — Fensulfothion Phosphamidon DDVP (Dichlorovos) 
— — Fenthion Profenophos DEF** 
— — Fonofos Propetamphos Demeton-O 
— — Isofenphos Ronnel Demeton-S 
— — Malathion Terbufos — 
11 Analytes 10 Analytes  44 Analytes  

Reporting limits are the lowest quantified concentration of an analyte detected in a sample, and limits vary for each chemical class. Analytes detected at reporting limits are recorded as ‘Trace’ and above reporting limits as ‘Positive’.

aReporting limit = 0.5 μg per POCIS.

bReporting limit = 0.1–1.0 μg per POCIS.

cReporting limit = 5.0–25.0 μg per POCIS.* Ethyl phenylphosphonothioate** S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate

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