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The HQ was calculated as the ratio of ADD/RfD (Tables 5 and 6). The human health risk assessment showed HQ values that suggest an acceptable level of non-carcinogenic health risk. Values of HQ ranged between 1 × 10−6 and 1.3 × 10−1 and followed the order: Ni > Cd > Pb > Cu > Al > Fe > Zn > Mn. However, all calculated values have resulted to be lower than 1, which means that all samples in the study are characterized by a low level of health risk.

Table 6

Hazard quotient, HQ × 10−3

SampleAlZnFeCuCrMnNiPbCd
Tap water – Student's city 0.69 1.69 0.85 9.16 168 0.02 7.19 7.37 4.64 
Tragjasi reservoir 1.39 2.39 0.53 5.61 325 0.16 19.7 18.8 3.48 
 Llogaraja spring 1.14 1.06 0.16 3.39 228 16.2 14.8 2.9 
Tragjas spring 1.09 1.33 5.54 300 0.070 19.8 14.5 4.06 
Tap water – Tirana city 6.06 2.32 0.71 6.87 325 0.11 14.4 13.8 3.48 
Trebeshina (0.5 L) 2.72 0.19 0.12 9.46 0.05 0.02 55.1 25.9 7.54 
Trebeshina (1.5 L) 0.65 0.06 11.6 0.06 0.08 53.7 28.8 7.54 
Living (sparkle 0.5 L) 0.93 0.15 0.04 3.48 0.04 0.02 12.6 10.4 4.06 
BI (0.5 L) 2.49 0.14 0.18 11.0 0.05 0.08 61.1 23.9 6.96 
Lajthiza (0.5 L) 1.50 0.19 0.20 0.65 0.01 0.18 2.25 0.75 3.48 
Qafeshtama (0.5 L) 0.34 0.11 0.22 1.14 0.05 5.37 3.89 3.48 
Glina (sparkle 0.5 L) 1.63 0.07 0.15 14.8 0.09 0.02 130 111 5.8 
Dukat (0.5 L) 0.47 0.17 1.70 0.03 13.5 11.1 4.06 
Dukat (1.5 L) 0.23 0.08 3.1 0.01 0.01 11.7 14.6 2.9 
Tepelena (0.5 L) 0.40 0.16 0.70 2.66 0.02 11.0 7.04 3.48 
Tepelena (1.5 L) 0.24 0.05 3.41 0.02 9.45 5.38 3.48 
Spring (0.5 L) 0.72 0.10 0.02 3.63 0.03 9.29 9.86 2.9 
Evian 0.51 0.004 0.89 9.06 0.04 0.06 29.9 14.7 3.48 
Frassassi 0.22 0.007 0.66 6.6 0.03 0.04 32.6 14.7 4.64 
Aqua Pana 0.81 0.29 0.70 13.1 0.02 0.01 8.64 12.8 5.8 
SampleAlZnFeCuCrMnNiPbCd
Tap water – Student's city 0.69 1.69 0.85 9.16 168 0.02 7.19 7.37 4.64 
Tragjasi reservoir 1.39 2.39 0.53 5.61 325 0.16 19.7 18.8 3.48 
 Llogaraja spring 1.14 1.06 0.16 3.39 228 16.2 14.8 2.9 
Tragjas spring 1.09 1.33 5.54 300 0.070 19.8 14.5 4.06 
Tap water – Tirana city 6.06 2.32 0.71 6.87 325 0.11 14.4 13.8 3.48 
Trebeshina (0.5 L) 2.72 0.19 0.12 9.46 0.05 0.02 55.1 25.9 7.54 
Trebeshina (1.5 L) 0.65 0.06 11.6 0.06 0.08 53.7 28.8 7.54 
Living (sparkle 0.5 L) 0.93 0.15 0.04 3.48 0.04 0.02 12.6 10.4 4.06 
BI (0.5 L) 2.49 0.14 0.18 11.0 0.05 0.08 61.1 23.9 6.96 
Lajthiza (0.5 L) 1.50 0.19 0.20 0.65 0.01 0.18 2.25 0.75 3.48 
Qafeshtama (0.5 L) 0.34 0.11 0.22 1.14 0.05 5.37 3.89 3.48 
Glina (sparkle 0.5 L) 1.63 0.07 0.15 14.8 0.09 0.02 130 111 5.8 
Dukat (0.5 L) 0.47 0.17 1.70 0.03 13.5 11.1 4.06 
Dukat (1.5 L) 0.23 0.08 3.1 0.01 0.01 11.7 14.6 2.9 
Tepelena (0.5 L) 0.40 0.16 0.70 2.66 0.02 11.0 7.04 3.48 
Tepelena (1.5 L) 0.24 0.05 3.41 0.02 9.45 5.38 3.48 
Spring (0.5 L) 0.72 0.10 0.02 3.63 0.03 9.29 9.86 2.9 
Evian 0.51 0.004 0.89 9.06 0.04 0.06 29.9 14.7 3.48 
Frassassi 0.22 0.007 0.66 6.6 0.03 0.04 32.6 14.7 4.64 
Aqua Pana 0.81 0.29 0.70 13.1 0.02 0.01 8.64 12.8 5.8 

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