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The risk of cancer is considered the possibility of an individual to develop a type of this disease during their lifetime as a result of exposure to a certain contaminant. In the present study, CR was assessed only for elements which are considered toxic for humans, respectively, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ni. Results are presented in Table 7.

Table 7

CR values

SampleCrPbCdNi
Tap water – Student's city 0.005 8.59 × 10−5 0.006 0.007 
Tragjasi reservoir 0.010 0.0002 0.004 0.020 
Llogaraja spring 0.007 0.0002 0.003 0.016 
Tragjas spring 0.009 0.0002 0.005 0.020 
Tap water – Tirana city 0.010 0.0002 0.004 0.015 
Trebeshina (0.5 L) 0.014 0.0003 0.009 0.006 
Trebeshina (1.5 L) 0.017 0.0003 0.009 0.006 
Living (sparkle 0.5 L) 0.011 0.0001 0.005 0.013 
BI (0.5 L) 0.014 0.0003 0.008 0.006 
Lajthiza (0.5 L) 0.003 8.8 × 10−6 0.004 0.023 
Qafeshtama (0.5 L) 0.015 4.6 × 10−5 0.004 0.006 
Glina (sparkle 0.5 L) 0.026 0.0012 0.007 0.013 
Dukat (0.5 L) 0.008 0.0001 0.005 0.014 
Dukat (1.5 L) 0.004 0.0002 0.003 0.012 
Tepelena (0.5 L) 0.007 8.3 × 10−5 0.004 0.011 
Tepelena (1.5 L) 0.007 6.3 × 10−5 0.004 0.010 
Spring (0.5 L) 0.009 0.0001 0.003 0.010 
Evian 0.012 0.0002 0.004 0.030 
Frassassi 0.010 0.0002 0.006 0.030 
Aqua Pana 0.005 0.0001 0.007 0.009 
SampleCrPbCdNi
Tap water – Student's city 0.005 8.59 × 10−5 0.006 0.007 
Tragjasi reservoir 0.010 0.0002 0.004 0.020 
Llogaraja spring 0.007 0.0002 0.003 0.016 
Tragjas spring 0.009 0.0002 0.005 0.020 
Tap water – Tirana city 0.010 0.0002 0.004 0.015 
Trebeshina (0.5 L) 0.014 0.0003 0.009 0.006 
Trebeshina (1.5 L) 0.017 0.0003 0.009 0.006 
Living (sparkle 0.5 L) 0.011 0.0001 0.005 0.013 
BI (0.5 L) 0.014 0.0003 0.008 0.006 
Lajthiza (0.5 L) 0.003 8.8 × 10−6 0.004 0.023 
Qafeshtama (0.5 L) 0.015 4.6 × 10−5 0.004 0.006 
Glina (sparkle 0.5 L) 0.026 0.0012 0.007 0.013 
Dukat (0.5 L) 0.008 0.0001 0.005 0.014 
Dukat (1.5 L) 0.004 0.0002 0.003 0.012 
Tepelena (0.5 L) 0.007 8.3 × 10−5 0.004 0.011 
Tepelena (1.5 L) 0.007 6.3 × 10−5 0.004 0.010 
Spring (0.5 L) 0.009 0.0001 0.003 0.010 
Evian 0.012 0.0002 0.004 0.030 
Frassassi 0.010 0.0002 0.006 0.030 
Aqua Pana 0.005 0.0001 0.007 0.009 

CR = ADD × SF.

Bold values present no tendency to develop a cancer risk.

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