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Elevations in the study area were classified into five flood susceptibility classes: very high (2,701–3,324 m), high (2,201–2,700 m), medium (1,901–2,200 m), low (1,601–1,900 m), and very low (1,174–11,600 m) (Figure 3(a)). Table 3 indicated that the lowest elevation (1,174–1,600 m) covers an area of 1,609.4 km2 (28.6%) and the highest elevation (2,701–3,324) covered an area of 208.8 km2 (3.6%). Flood affected the dwellers living near to the outlet of the Bilate catchment. The lowest elevation class had a very high flood susceptibility classification, while the highest elevation class had a very low flood susceptibility classification. Previous studies neglected flood susceptibility mapping in the Bilate catchment (Nannawo et al. 2021; Orke & Li 2021; Edamo et al. 2022a, 2022b, 2022c). This study plays a great role in flood risk management.
Table 3

The elevation factor of the Bilate catchment

Elevation (m)Area (km2)Area (%)
1,174–1,600 1,609.4 28.6 
1,601–1,900 2,064.8 36.7 
1,901–2,200 647.5 11.5 
2,201–2,700 1,094.5 19.5 
2,701–3,324 208.8 3.6 
Total 5,625 100 
Elevation (m)Area (km2)Area (%)
1,174–1,600 1,609.4 28.6 
1,601–1,900 2,064.8 36.7 
1,901–2,200 647.5 11.5 
2,201–2,700 1,094.5 19.5 
2,701–3,324 208.8 3.6 
Total 5,625 100 
Figure 3

Flood-influencing factors: (a) DEM, (b) soil type, (c) slope, (d) SPI, (e) LULC, (f) rainfall, (g) flow accumulation, (h) flow direction, (i) aspect, (j) curvature, (k) STI, (l) TWI, (m) geology, (n) geomorphology, (o) population density, (p) DD, (q) TRI, and (r) the distance from river.

Figure 3

Flood-influencing factors: (a) DEM, (b) soil type, (c) slope, (d) SPI, (e) LULC, (f) rainfall, (g) flow accumulation, (h) flow direction, (i) aspect, (j) curvature, (k) STI, (l) TWI, (m) geology, (n) geomorphology, (o) population density, (p) DD, (q) TRI, and (r) the distance from river.

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