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The curvature map of the study area is presented in Figure 3(j). Table 12 implied that the curvature is classified into the following five classes: −15 to (−0.76), −0.75 to (−0.31), −0.3 to (−0.02), 0.021–0.35, and 0.36–14, respectively. A positive value of curvature represents a convex surface, zero a flat surface, and a negative value a concave surface (Das 2019). Hudson & Kessel (2000) observed that curvature between 1.0 and 2.0 had a greater probability of flooding. Hence, the probability of flood is very high between the curvature from 1.6 to 22 and very low between −19 and (−2.2), respectively. Similarly, curvature is also an important factor and represents the morphology of the topography (Das 2018).

Table 12

The curvature factor of the Bilate catchment

CurvatureArea (km2)Area (%)
−15 to (−0.76) 1,609.4 28.6 
−0.75 to (−0.31) 2,064.8 36.7 
−0.3 to (−0.02) 647.5 11.5 
0.021–0.35 909.5 16.2 
0.36–14 394.5 
Total 5,625 100 
CurvatureArea (km2)Area (%)
−15 to (−0.76) 1,609.4 28.6 
−0.75 to (−0.31) 2,064.8 36.7 
−0.3 to (−0.02) 647.5 11.5 
0.021–0.35 909.5 16.2 
0.36–14 394.5 
Total 5,625 100 

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