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Flood is more likely in areas with a bigger TWI (Mojaddadi et al. 2017). Lower TWI zones, on the other hand, are less vulnerable to flooding (Figure 3 (l)). The higher value was assigned for the higher TWI and the lower value was assigned for the lower TWI, respectively. As a result, the downstream of the Bilate catchment has the highest TWI and has a larger probability of flooding than the upstream of the catchment, which has the lowest TWI and has a lower probability of flooding. The lowest TWI covers an area of 265.9 km2 (4.7%) in class between 6.8 and 8.3 whereas the highest TWI cover an area of 2,077.2 km2 (36.9%) in class between 12 and 14, respectively (Table 14).

Table 14

The TWI factor of the Bilate catchment

TWI (TWI)Area (km2)Area (%)
2.6–6.7 1,830.7 32.5 
6.8–8.3 265.9 4.7 
8.4–11 492 8.7 
12–14 2,077.2 36.9 
15–28 959.2 17.1 
Total 5,625 100 
TWI (TWI)Area (km2)Area (%)
2.6–6.7 1,830.7 32.5 
6.8–8.3 265.9 4.7 
8.4–11 492 8.7 
12–14 2,077.2 36.9 
15–28 959.2 17.1 
Total 5,625 100 

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