Table 3 summarises the facilities and fouling problems affected by L. fortunei. As early as the 1970s, fouling brought by L. fortunei appeared in cooling water pipes at one of the largest steel mills, the Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation, in Hubei, central China (Boltovskoy et al. 2015b; Xu et al. 2015b). Mussels clogged the pipes of water supply systems and caused expensive clean-up costs or plants shutdowns. In the 1980s, fouling problems became prevalent, which generally affected the industrial and water transfer facilities. Some water treatment plants, such as the water treatment plants in Suzhou, were even temporarily closed due to pipe clogging caused by L. fortunei (Luo et al. 2006; Boltovskoy et al. 2015b). Similarly, several water treatment plants have also been affected by L. fortunei biofouling problems, including mass attachment of mussels on water screening structures, blocks in strainers and pipes for water quality monitoring, accumulation of dead mussels in settling and flocculation chambers, and blockage of cooling system pipes for intake pumps, in the Yodo River system in Japan (Boltovskoy et al. 2015b). In addition, Oliveira et al. (2015) illustrated that hydropower and nuclear facilities associated with these dams had been experiencing fouling problems due to the mussel since around 2000.

Table 3

The facilities and fouling problems affected by Limnoperna fortunei (adapted from Boltovskoy et al. (2015b) and Ricciardi (1998))

FacilitiesFouling problemsArea/Location
Water and wastewater treatment facilities 
  • Mass attachment of mussels on raw water screening structures

  • Obstruction in strainers and pipes for water quality monitoring

  • Accumulation of dead mussels in settling and flocculation chambers

  • Blockage of cooling system pipes for intake pumps

  • Heavy clogging of water intake grates

 
  • Jyr-Tan pumping station, Taiwan, China

  • Suzhou, China

  • Hanshin Water Supply Authority, Japan

  • Lake Biwa-Yodo River system, Japan

  • Osaka Prefectural Water Works Department, Japan

  • AySA La Plata, Argentina

 
Municipal and industrial water supply systems 
  • Colonize crevices, seams and joints in pipelines and conduits

  • Reduce flow through narrow pipelines

 
Water transfer canals, pipelines, drainage systems, ship transit, and aqueducts 
  • Shenzhen Dongjiang, China

  • Xizhijiang River, China

  • East River, China

  • others

 
Steel mills 
  • Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation, China

  • Acindar, Argentina

 
Nuclear power plants 
  • Mussel growth on intake screens and headrace channels

  • Obstruction of bulwark pipes

  • Causing gauge malfunctions and failures

  • Blockage of electric generator cooling water pipes

 
  • Central Nuclear Embalse, Argentina

  • Central Nuclear Atucha I, Argentina

 
Hydroelectric power plants 
  • Clogging concrete underwater structures, valves, trash racks, gates, etc

  • Increasing resistance to water flow

  • Enhancing corrosion

  • Clogging pipes

  • Jamming mobile components

  • Pose serious safety risks for the plant's personnel

 
  • Shisanling, Beijing, China

  • Langyashan, Anhui, China

  • Tianhuangping, Zhejiang, China

  • Guangxu, Shenzhen, China

  • Yahagi River, Japan

  • Itaipu, Brazil/Paraguay

  • Yacyretá, Argentina/Paraguay

  • Salto Grande, Argentina/Uruguay

  • Fitz Simon, Cassafousth, Reolín, Piedras Moras, San Roque, La Calera, Argentina

  • Constitución, Uruguay

  • Over 30 plants on the upper Paraná River, Paranaíba/Aporé/Claro/etc./Brazil

 
Thermal power plants 
  • Central Puerto, Argentina

 
Refineries 
  • Shell CAPSA (Dock Sud), ESSO (Campana), Argentina

 
Food processing plants 
  • Tres Cruces, Argentina

 
Fish culture facilities 
  • Clogging of net cages for pacu

  • Clogging of fish farming components for sturgeon

 
  • Longtan Reservoir, Guangxi, China

  • Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil/Paraguay

  • Esturiones del Río Negro, Uruguay

 
Navigation dams 
  • Brazil

 
Watercraft 
  • Widespread in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,

  • Uruguay

 
Agricultural irrigation systems 
  • Mass attachment on intake screens, irrigation channels, balancing reservoirs, and balancing tanks

  • Obstruction of strainers and pipeworks

 
  • Widespread in China and Japan

 
Stream level gauging components 
  • Widespread in Japan

 
Fish diversion components 
  • Widespread in Japan

 
Common raw water components 
  • Clogging (living Limnoperna fortunei and/or dead, dislodged shell clusters), pressure loss, overheating

  • Corrosion, erosion, abrasion

  • Deterioration of metal, concrete and other materials

  • Wear, like pump and turbine shaft seals, pumps and turbine wear rings, slurry pump seals

  • Jamming mobile components

  • Poor tightness, like stopping logs, valves, boat underwater rudder and propulsion components

  • Sediment accumulation

  • Accumulation of dead specimens

  • Pollution, decomposition of dead mussels and mussel waste leads to the deterioration of water quality

 
  • Heat exchangers and condensers

  • Pipes

  • Strainers, filters, trash racks, grates, screens

  • Penstocks

  • Holding ponds, storage tanks, pump suction chambers, pump wells

  • Water intake tunnels

  • Sand filtration systems

  • Pumps, nozzles, sprinklers

  • Vent lines, air release valves

  • Grit chambers, flocculators

  • Submerged monitoring instrumentation, level gauges

  • Pump and turbine shafts, seals, wear rings

  • Boat engines (like cooling water ducts, filters pumps), submerged rudder, propulsion components

 
FacilitiesFouling problemsArea/Location
Water and wastewater treatment facilities 
  • Mass attachment of mussels on raw water screening structures

  • Obstruction in strainers and pipes for water quality monitoring

  • Accumulation of dead mussels in settling and flocculation chambers

  • Blockage of cooling system pipes for intake pumps

  • Heavy clogging of water intake grates

 
  • Jyr-Tan pumping station, Taiwan, China

  • Suzhou, China

  • Hanshin Water Supply Authority, Japan

  • Lake Biwa-Yodo River system, Japan

  • Osaka Prefectural Water Works Department, Japan

  • AySA La Plata, Argentina

 
Municipal and industrial water supply systems 
  • Colonize crevices, seams and joints in pipelines and conduits

  • Reduce flow through narrow pipelines

 
Water transfer canals, pipelines, drainage systems, ship transit, and aqueducts 
  • Shenzhen Dongjiang, China

  • Xizhijiang River, China

  • East River, China

  • others

 
Steel mills 
  • Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation, China

  • Acindar, Argentina

 
Nuclear power plants 
  • Mussel growth on intake screens and headrace channels

  • Obstruction of bulwark pipes

  • Causing gauge malfunctions and failures

  • Blockage of electric generator cooling water pipes

 
  • Central Nuclear Embalse, Argentina

  • Central Nuclear Atucha I, Argentina

 
Hydroelectric power plants 
  • Clogging concrete underwater structures, valves, trash racks, gates, etc

  • Increasing resistance to water flow

  • Enhancing corrosion

  • Clogging pipes

  • Jamming mobile components

  • Pose serious safety risks for the plant's personnel

 
  • Shisanling, Beijing, China

  • Langyashan, Anhui, China

  • Tianhuangping, Zhejiang, China

  • Guangxu, Shenzhen, China

  • Yahagi River, Japan

  • Itaipu, Brazil/Paraguay

  • Yacyretá, Argentina/Paraguay

  • Salto Grande, Argentina/Uruguay

  • Fitz Simon, Cassafousth, Reolín, Piedras Moras, San Roque, La Calera, Argentina

  • Constitución, Uruguay

  • Over 30 plants on the upper Paraná River, Paranaíba/Aporé/Claro/etc./Brazil

 
Thermal power plants 
  • Central Puerto, Argentina

 
Refineries 
  • Shell CAPSA (Dock Sud), ESSO (Campana), Argentina

 
Food processing plants 
  • Tres Cruces, Argentina

 
Fish culture facilities 
  • Clogging of net cages for pacu

  • Clogging of fish farming components for sturgeon

 
  • Longtan Reservoir, Guangxi, China

  • Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil/Paraguay

  • Esturiones del Río Negro, Uruguay

 
Navigation dams 
  • Brazil

 
Watercraft 
  • Widespread in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,

  • Uruguay

 
Agricultural irrigation systems 
  • Mass attachment on intake screens, irrigation channels, balancing reservoirs, and balancing tanks

  • Obstruction of strainers and pipeworks

 
  • Widespread in China and Japan

 
Stream level gauging components 
  • Widespread in Japan

 
Fish diversion components 
  • Widespread in Japan

 
Common raw water components 
  • Clogging (living Limnoperna fortunei and/or dead, dislodged shell clusters), pressure loss, overheating

  • Corrosion, erosion, abrasion

  • Deterioration of metal, concrete and other materials

  • Wear, like pump and turbine shaft seals, pumps and turbine wear rings, slurry pump seals

  • Jamming mobile components

  • Poor tightness, like stopping logs, valves, boat underwater rudder and propulsion components

  • Sediment accumulation

  • Accumulation of dead specimens

  • Pollution, decomposition of dead mussels and mussel waste leads to the deterioration of water quality

 
  • Heat exchangers and condensers

  • Pipes

  • Strainers, filters, trash racks, grates, screens

  • Penstocks

  • Holding ponds, storage tanks, pump suction chambers, pump wells

  • Water intake tunnels

  • Sand filtration systems

  • Pumps, nozzles, sprinklers

  • Vent lines, air release valves

  • Grit chambers, flocculators

  • Submerged monitoring instrumentation, level gauges

  • Pump and turbine shafts, seals, wear rings

  • Boat engines (like cooling water ducts, filters pumps), submerged rudder, propulsion components

 

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