The volatile matter content was measured directly in the automated proximate analyzer. When a sample of furnace oil is burned to completion, the incombustible residue is reflected by the ash content. High-temperature muffle furnaces that can sustain temperatures between 300 and 400 °C are used during the processes. In the presence of oxygen in the air, certain substances, like water and other volatile elements, are combusted while others, including organic molecules, are evaporated. The amount of ash in the sample can be calculated by comparing the weights of the sample before and after ashing. Fixed carbon is calculated by subtracting the percentage of volatile matter, moister content, and ash content from 100. The bulk density of the orange peel AC was determined with the help of a densitometer (BTI Make: Microprocessor Based 4 Digit present counter, 30 strokes per minute, height 50 mm). The chemical compositions of the orange peel AC were analyzed with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis shown in Figure 2. EDAX analysis of orange peel AC has the element consisting of C, O, Zn, etc. The physicochemical characteristics of the orange peel AC are presented in Table 1.
Table 1

Characteristics of the orange peels AC

PropertiesUnitsOrange peels AC
Surface area m2 g−1 512.2 
Total pore volume cm3 g−1 0.29 
Average pore diameter Å 33.21 
Bulk density g/cm3 0.58 
Moisture content wt.% 8.19 
Volatile matter content wt.% 23.7 
Fixed carbon content wt.% 66.41 
Ash content wt.% 1.7 
PropertiesUnitsOrange peels AC
Surface area m2 g−1 512.2 
Total pore volume cm3 g−1 0.29 
Average pore diameter Å 33.21 
Bulk density g/cm3 0.58 
Moisture content wt.% 8.19 
Volatile matter content wt.% 23.7 
Fixed carbon content wt.% 66.41 
Ash content wt.% 1.7 
Figure 2

EDAX of orange peels AC.

Figure 2

EDAX of orange peels AC.

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