Since the study used secondary data analysis of the publicly available datasets, ethical approval was not required. However, at the start of each household interview, EDHS surveyors obtained informed consent, and data were obtained from DHS after being registered and requested from https://dhsprogram.com/data/.

Table 1

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) ladder for WASH services

Service levelWaterSanitationHygiene
Basic Drinking water from an improved source, provided collection time is not more than 30 min for a round trip, including queuing Use of improved facilities that are not shared with other households Availability of a handwashing facility with soap and water at home 
Limited Drinking water from an improved source, for which collection time exceeds 30 min for a round trip, including queuing Use of improved facilities that are shared with other households Availability of a handwashing facility lacking soap and/or water at home 
Unimproved Drinking water from an unprotected dug well or unprotected spring Use of pit latrines without a slab or platform, hanging latrines or bucket latrines Not applicable 
No service Surface water Open defecation No handwashing facility at home 
Service levelWaterSanitationHygiene
Basic Drinking water from an improved source, provided collection time is not more than 30 min for a round trip, including queuing Use of improved facilities that are not shared with other households Availability of a handwashing facility with soap and water at home 
Limited Drinking water from an improved source, for which collection time exceeds 30 min for a round trip, including queuing Use of improved facilities that are shared with other households Availability of a handwashing facility lacking soap and/or water at home 
Unimproved Drinking water from an unprotected dug well or unprotected spring Use of pit latrines without a slab or platform, hanging latrines or bucket latrines Not applicable 
No service Surface water Open defecation No handwashing facility at home 

Source: Adapted from WHO/UNICEF Progress on Household Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (2000–2020) (WHO/UNICEF 2021).

Table 2

WHO/UNICEF JMP ladder for improved and unimproved for water and sanitation facilities

Facilities typeDrinking waterSanitation
Improved facilities Piped supplies
  • Tap water in the dwelling, yard or plot, including piped to a neighbor, and public taps or standpipes


Non-piped supplies
  • Boreholes/tube wells, protected wells and springs, rainwater, packaged water, including bottled water and sachet water, delivered water, including tanker trucks and small carts/tanks/drums, and water kiosks

 
Networked sanitation
  • Flush and pour-flush toilets connected to sewers


On-site sanitation
  • Flush and pour-flush toilets or latrines connected to septic tanks or pits, Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrines, pit latrines with slabs (constructed from materials that are durable and easy to clean), and composting toilets, including twin pit latrines with slabs and container-based systems

 
Unimproved facilities Non-piped supplies
  • Unprotected wells and springs

 
Networked sanitation
  • Flush and pour-flush toilets flushed to an open drain or elsewhere


On-site sanitation
  • Pit latrines without slabs, open pits, hanging toilets/latrines, bucket latrines, including pans, trays or other unsealed containers

 
Facilities typeDrinking waterSanitation
Improved facilities Piped supplies
  • Tap water in the dwelling, yard or plot, including piped to a neighbor, and public taps or standpipes


Non-piped supplies
  • Boreholes/tube wells, protected wells and springs, rainwater, packaged water, including bottled water and sachet water, delivered water, including tanker trucks and small carts/tanks/drums, and water kiosks

 
Networked sanitation
  • Flush and pour-flush toilets connected to sewers


On-site sanitation
  • Flush and pour-flush toilets or latrines connected to septic tanks or pits, Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrines, pit latrines with slabs (constructed from materials that are durable and easy to clean), and composting toilets, including twin pit latrines with slabs and container-based systems

 
Unimproved facilities Non-piped supplies
  • Unprotected wells and springs

 
Networked sanitation
  • Flush and pour-flush toilets flushed to an open drain or elsewhere


On-site sanitation
  • Pit latrines without slabs, open pits, hanging toilets/latrines, bucket latrines, including pans, trays or other unsealed containers

 

Source. Adapted from WHO/UNICEF Progress on Household Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (2000–2020) (WHO/UNICEF 2021).

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