Table 6 summarizes the main results of the logistic regression. There is a statistically significant negative relationship between age and rainwater use (β = −0.113, sig. = 0.001). The Wald statistic (11.781) also reflects its significant relationship. The negative sign indicates that as farmer age increases, the use of rainwater decreases. The odds ratio for age shows that for every 1 year increase in the farmer's age, the probability of using rainwater decreased by a factor of 0.893. The educational level of farmers is positively correlated with the use of rainwater at a significance level of 1% (β = 0.325, sig. = 0.000). The Wald statistic (13,822) also confirms the significant association between both variables. This indicates that farmers with more years of education are more likely to use rainwater. The odds ratio indicates that every additional year of education increases the probability of using rainwater by a factor of 1.384. The size of the holding shows a positive relationship with the use of rainwater, significant at 10% (β = 0.537, sig. = 0.062), an aspect also confirmed by the Wald statistic (3.476). Farmers who have larger holdings are more likely to use rainwater. According to the odds ratio, an increase in the size of the farm by one hectare increases the possibility of using rainwater by a factor of 1.712. The capacity of the pond is positively related and at a significance level of 1% with the use of rainwater (β = 1.066, sig. = 0.001). The Wald statistic confirms this relationship (10.667). Therefore, it is more likely that farmers use rainwater if they have higher-capacity ponds. The odds ratio for this variable reveals that an increase of 1 m3 in the capacity of the pond increases the probability of using rainwater by a factor of 2.903. The volume of water to which the pond is maintained is negatively correlated with the use of rainwater at a significance level of 1% (β = −2.124, sig. = 0.001). The Wald statistic (11.164) confirms this significant relationship. Therefore, it is less likely that rainwater is used in holdings which keep their ponds at a high volume of water. The odds ratio reveals that farmers who maintain their ponds at a volume lower than 75% of their capacity use rainwater 0.12 times more than those who maintain it beyond 75% of their capacity. The electrical conductivity of irrigation water has a nonsignificant positive impact on the use of rainwater (β = 0.791, sig. = 0.354). The positive sign indicates that the greater the electrical conductivity of the irrigation water is, the greater the probability of using rainwater.

Table 6

Results of the binary logistic regression

VariableβStandard errorWaldSignificanceExp. (β)
Age −0.113 0.033 11.781 —0.001*** 0.893
Level of education 0.325 0.087 13.822 —0.000*** 1.384
Holding size 0.537 0.288 3.476 —0.062* 1.712
Pond capacity 1.066 0.326 10.667 —0.001*** 2.903
Quantity of water in the pond −2.124 0.636 11.164 —0.001*** 0.120
Electrical conductivity in irrigation water 0.791 0.853 0.860 —0.354 2.206
Cooperative membership 0.638 0.493 1.673 —0.196 1.892
Season income 0.451 0.258 3.057 —0.080* 1.569
Season expenses −0.351 0.241 2.116 —0.146 0.704
Environmental awareness 1.069 0.490 4.762 —0.029** 2.914
Constant −0.353 2.633 0.018 —0.893 0.703
VariableβStandard errorWaldSignificanceExp. (β)
Age −0.113 0.033 11.781 —0.001*** 0.893
Level of education 0.325 0.087 13.822 —0.000*** 1.384
Holding size 0.537 0.288 3.476 —0.062* 1.712
Pond capacity 1.066 0.326 10.667 —0.001*** 2.903
Quantity of water in the pond −2.124 0.636 11.164 —0.001*** 0.120
Electrical conductivity in irrigation water 0.791 0.853 0.860 —0.354 2.206
Cooperative membership 0.638 0.493 1.673 —0.196 1.892
Season income 0.451 0.258 3.057 —0.080* 1.569
Season expenses −0.351 0.241 2.116 —0.146 0.704
Environmental awareness 1.069 0.490 4.762 —0.029** 2.914
Constant −0.353 2.633 0.018 —0.893 0.703

Number of observations: 143; Hosmer and Lemeshow test: Chi-square = 5.718; df = 8; sig. = 0.679; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.555; percent correct prediction = 76.2%.

*significant at 10%, ** significant at 5%, *** significant at 1%.

Source: Own elaboration.

Close Modal