Figure 5(a) shows the boundary conditions applied to numerical models. Six-sided boundary conditions are implemented in FLOW-3D. The upstream and downstream boundaries are set as pressure (P). The lateral sides such as *Y*_{min} and *Y*_{max} are set as wall (W) boundaries which indicate no-slip conditions, and zero tangential & normal velocity (*u* = *v* = *w* = 0)) on the wall, where *u*, *v*, and *w* are the velocity in *x*, *y*, and *z* directions, respectively. Upper boundary (*Z*_{max}) is set as atmospheric pressure with a fluid fraction (0) to allow water as null von Neumann. The lower boundaries (*Z*_{min}) is set as symmetrical. Additionally, to deactivate the empty cells on the downstream side and to minimize the simulation time, the model applied a domain-removing component as shown in Figure 5(b). The cell's deactivation region was defined from gate to the end of the stilling basin and it was ensured that the domain-removing region is not containing the flow. Table 3 shows the upstream and downstream initial conditions given to models for gated flow (44 m^{3}/s). Three different downstream elevations and a constant upstream fluid elevation of 136.24 m were implemented to run various models.

Table 3

Discharge (m^{3}/s)
. | Minimum tailwater (m) . | Intermediate tailwater (m) . | Maximum tailwater (m) . | Upstream pond level (m) . | Barrage operation . |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

44 | 129.10 | 129.70 | 130.30 | 136.24 | Gated discharge |

Discharge (m^{3}/s)
. | Minimum tailwater (m) . | Intermediate tailwater (m) . | Maximum tailwater (m) . | Upstream pond level (m) . | Barrage operation . |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

44 | 129.10 | 129.70 | 130.30 | 136.24 | Gated discharge |

Figure 5

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