As SAR images and consequently land uses change is only available from 1995 to 2016, a statistical analysis was performed for trend detection in this specific period in order to assess the significance of the temporal change in MDHE occurrences (Figure 6). The Mann–Kendall test, Pearson test and Sen's Slope estimator test were applied for detecting the existence of a possible monotonic trend direction and the magnitude of change at 5% significance level. Each of the three tests rejects the null hypothesis, that is the presence of a statistically significant trend is confirmed (Table 8). In addition, the positive value of the test-statistics suggests an upward trend direction, as evident in Figure 6.

Table 8

Test . | Test statistic . | Null hypothesis . | Direction of trend . | p-value
. |
---|---|---|---|---|

Mann–Kendall | Z = 3.7 | Rejected | Upward | 0.000174315 |

Pearson | t = 5.2 | Rejected | Upward | 0.000021153 |

Sen | Q_{min} = 0.17; Q_{max} = 0.5; S = 0.33 | Rejected | Upward | – |

Test . | Test statistic . | Null hypothesis . | Direction of trend . | p-value
. |
---|---|---|---|---|

Mann–Kendall | Z = 3.7 | Rejected | Upward | 0.000174315 |

Pearson | t = 5.2 | Rejected | Upward | 0.000021153 |

Sen | Q_{min} = 0.17; Q_{max} = 0.5; S = 0.33 | Rejected | Upward | – |

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