Human water withdrawal is also an important reason for the significant decrease in runoff in the MRYR. The Yellow River Water Resources Bulletin shows that human water withdrawal in the MRYR increased from 67 × 108 m3 in the 1990s to 94 × 108 m3 in the 2010s (Table 8). Using 1990–1999 as the base period, we calculated the growth rates of human water withdrawals for 2000–2009 and 2010–2020. In both periods, the Toudaoguai-Longmen (Figure 1, including HF, KY, WD, and YR) section experienced significantly higher water withdrawal growth than the other two river sections, according to Table 8.

Table 8

Change of human water use in the MRYR from 1990 to 2020

Toudaoguai-Longmen
Longmen-Sanmenxia
Sanmenxia-Huayuankou
Annual water withdrawal (100 million m3)Change rate (%)Annual water withdrawal (100 million m3)Change rate (%)Annual water withdrawal (100 million m3)Change rate (%)
1990–1999 6.3  39.5  21.4  
2000–2009 8.3 31.5 42.3 6.9 16.9 −21.2 
2010–2020 12.4 50.6 58.6 38.8 23.1 37.2 
Toudaoguai-Longmen
Longmen-Sanmenxia
Sanmenxia-Huayuankou
Annual water withdrawal (100 million m3)Change rate (%)Annual water withdrawal (100 million m3)Change rate (%)Annual water withdrawal (100 million m3)Change rate (%)
1990–1999 6.3  39.5  21.4  
2000–2009 8.3 31.5 42.3 6.9 16.9 −21.2 
2010–2020 12.4 50.6 58.6 38.8 23.1 37.2 

Note: Human water withdrawal data are from the Yellow River Water Resources Bulletin for 1990–2020.

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