We use several metrics and hydrological signatures to evaluate model simulations, including the general performance of discharge simulations, the reproduction of hydrological responses by model simulations, and long-term water balances. Table 2 summarizes all the metrics and signatures.

Table 2

Metric & signature . | Equation . | Description . | Reference . |
---|---|---|---|

Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE [–]) | Describes the model performance. KGE ranges from − to 1, with optimum at 1. , and r indicates variability, bias and linear correlation, respectively | Gupta et al. (2009) | |

Baseflow index ( [–]) | Characterizes the proportion of baseflow of the total discharge | Sawicz et al. (2011) | |

R-B Flashness index ( [–]) | Describes the frequency and rapidness of changes in discharge over a given time | Baker et al. (2004) | |

Inter-annual correlation coefficient ( [–]) | Describes the linear correlation between observed and simulated annual average discharge | – | |

Intra-annual correlation coefficient ( [–]) | Describes the linear correlation between observed and simulated long-term monthly mean discharge (mean of specific month over a period) | – | |

Runoff ratio ( [–]) | Characterizes the separation of precipitation to discharge and evapotranspiration | Yadav et al. (2007) | |

Relative error of long-term mean discharge ( [–]) | Characterizes relative error of the long-term water balance | – | |

Rainfall index ( [–]) | Characterizes spatial variability of precipitation in a catchment | Smith et al. (2004) | |

Location index ( [–]) | Characterizes the variability of the precipitation fields | Smith et al. (2004) | |

Mean interquartile range ( [–]) | Characterizes the uncertainty associated with different parameter sets | – | |

Mean standard deviation ( [–]) | Characterizes the uncertainty associated with different parameter sets | – | |

Mean variance ( [–]) | Characterizes the uncertainty associated with different parameter sets | – |

Metric & signature . | Equation . | Description . | Reference . |
---|---|---|---|

Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE [–]) | Describes the model performance. KGE ranges from − to 1, with optimum at 1. , and r indicates variability, bias and linear correlation, respectively | Gupta et al. (2009) | |

Baseflow index ( [–]) | Characterizes the proportion of baseflow of the total discharge | Sawicz et al. (2011) | |

R-B Flashness index ( [–]) | Describes the frequency and rapidness of changes in discharge over a given time | Baker et al. (2004) | |

Inter-annual correlation coefficient ( [–]) | Describes the linear correlation between observed and simulated annual average discharge | – | |

Intra-annual correlation coefficient ( [–]) | Describes the linear correlation between observed and simulated long-term monthly mean discharge (mean of specific month over a period) | – | |

Runoff ratio ( [–]) | Characterizes the separation of precipitation to discharge and evapotranspiration | Yadav et al. (2007) | |

Relative error of long-term mean discharge ( [–]) | Characterizes relative error of the long-term water balance | – | |

Rainfall index ( [–]) | Characterizes spatial variability of precipitation in a catchment | Smith et al. (2004) | |

Location index ( [–]) | Characterizes the variability of the precipitation fields | Smith et al. (2004) | |

Mean interquartile range ( [–]) | Characterizes the uncertainty associated with different parameter sets | – | |

Mean standard deviation ( [–]) | Characterizes the uncertainty associated with different parameter sets | – | |

Mean variance ( [–]) | Characterizes the uncertainty associated with different parameter sets | – |

*Note*: (, ) and (, ): mean and standard deviation of observations and simulations, respectively; *V*_{B} and *V*: volumes of baseflow and total discharge, respectively [m^{3}]. *Q _{t}*: discharge at time

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