Infrastructure/service assessments included visual assessments of drinking water supply, toilets, handwashing stations, solid waste disposal and drainage in the markets (Table 3). Of the 46 included studies, 23 (50%) collected data on the water supply available in the market. The majority of the water supplies found in markets were municipal piped supplies (n = 15; 33%) or boreholes (n = 11; 24%). Several markets had more than one type of water supply. Twelve studies (28%) collected data on access to toilets at the market, seven of which reported the type of toilet present (16%), while one study reported the absence of toilets in the market (Abdalla et al. 2009). Where reported, the toilets were maintained by private operators (Samikwa et al. 2019), local council employees or the community (Lazaro et al. 2019). None of the identified studies reported on water quality, the quantity of water available per vendor, the number of toilets or handwashing facilities per vendor or the average distance between vendors and these services. Twelve (26%) studies reported the availability of handwashing facilities to market vendors. Seven of these also assessed the availability of soap (16%), which was available at four locations. In five studies, these facilities were available at the vendor's stalls; in one study, they were 15 and 21 m from the market. The rest of the studies did not indicate the distance between handwashing facilities and the points of sale. The type of water supply at the handwashing stations was reported by four studies (9%), where two had piped water. Vendors at the other two locations washed their hands with water stored in containers. Of the six studies (14%) that reported on handwashing facilities near toilets, four found facilities with running water available near toilets. The others did not comment on whether the handwashing facility was with a toilet or independent of it. Studies did not report on access to handwashing stations for the public.

Table 3

Type of infrastructure or service assessed in the studies included in the review

Type of infrastructure/service assessedStudy count (n)Percent of total
n = 46
Water supply 23 50 
Municipal supply (taps) 15 
Municipal water tank 1 
Private seller 3 
Rainwater harvesting 1 
Wells (including boreholes/protected wells) 11 
Type of supply not reported 4 
Toilets 12 28 
Pit latrines 4 
Flush toilets connected to septic tanks 6 
VIP latrine 1 
Type of toilet not reported 4 
No toilet available 1 
Handwashing facilities 13 28 
Availability of running water 4 
Availability of soap 7 
No data reported on running water or soap 
No handwashing facilities available 
Drainage 5 11 
Solid waste collection(municipal or private collection service) 18 39 
Type of infrastructure/service assessedStudy count (n)Percent of total
n = 46
Water supply 23 50 
Municipal supply (taps) 15 
Municipal water tank 1 
Private seller 3 
Rainwater harvesting 1 
Wells (including boreholes/protected wells) 11 
Type of supply not reported 4 
Toilets 12 28 
Pit latrines 4 
Flush toilets connected to septic tanks 6 
VIP latrine 1 
Type of toilet not reported 4 
No toilet available 1 
Handwashing facilities 13 28 
Availability of running water 4 
Availability of soap 7 
No data reported on running water or soap 
No handwashing facilities available 
Drainage 5 11 
Solid waste collection(municipal or private collection service) 18 39 

Note: Several studies reported multiple types of water supplies and toilets available to vendors.

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