Perceived well status with respect to As was not the only determinant of well switching. The average distance to the nearest safe well in a village decreases with the proportion of safe wells within that village (Figure 4(a)). Geography has an impact on switching, as indicated by the relationship between the proportion of switching and the average distance to the nearest safe well (Figure 4(b)). Education of the interviewed household member also had an impact on switching. Across all unsafe wells, there was predictable variation in rates of switching as a function of both education and distance to the nearest safe well (Table 1). Years of formal education of the respondents ranged from 0 to 16 years, averaging four years, and distance to the nearest safe well varied widely (10–600 m) across the study area, averaging 69 m. A one-standard-deviation increase in years of formal education (4 1/4 years) raised the well-switching rates by 3.5% (in absolute terms, i.e. percent of the group, the convention we use for all percentage results), while a one-standard-deviation increase in the distance to the nearest safe well (82 m) decreased the well-switching rates by 8%.

Table 1

Independent variables of household-level regression . | Probability of switching from unsafe wells . | Independent variables of household-level regression . | Probability for those who switch beyond nearest safe well . | Independent variables of village-level regression . | Probability of switching from unsafe wells . |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Education (year) | 0.008 (p < 0.001) | Education (yr) | 0.008 (0.11) | Average education (yr) | 0.039 (0.00) |

Distance to nearest safe well (m) | −0.001 (p < 0.001) | Distance to nearest safe well (m) | −0.024 (p < 0.001) | Distance to nearest safe well (m) | −0.001 (0.01) |

Log (distance to HEALS) | −0.058 (0.01) | ||||

Constant | 0.68 (0.00) | ||||

n | 2003 | n | 467 | n | 76 |

Adjusted r^{2} | 0.22 | Adjusted r^{2} | 0.11 | Adjusted r^{2} | 0.28 |

Village effects included as controls for village differences in factors not observed | Village effects included as controls for village differences in factors not observed | F Statistic Prob > F | F (3, 72) = 10.7 0.0000 |

Independent variables of household-level regression . | Probability of switching from unsafe wells . | Independent variables of household-level regression . | Probability for those who switch beyond nearest safe well . | Independent variables of village-level regression . | Probability of switching from unsafe wells . |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Education (year) | 0.008 (p < 0.001) | Education (yr) | 0.008 (0.11) | Average education (yr) | 0.039 (0.00) |

Distance to nearest safe well (m) | −0.001 (p < 0.001) | Distance to nearest safe well (m) | −0.024 (p < 0.001) | Distance to nearest safe well (m) | −0.001 (0.01) |

Log (distance to HEALS) | −0.058 (0.01) | ||||

Constant | 0.68 (0.00) | ||||

n | 2003 | n | 467 | n | 76 |

Adjusted r^{2} | 0.22 | Adjusted r^{2} | 0.11 | Adjusted r^{2} | 0.28 |

Village effects included as controls for village differences in factors not observed | Village effects included as controls for village differences in factors not observed | F Statistic Prob > F | F (3, 72) = 10.7 0.0000 |

Figure 4

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