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Twenty-seven pathways emerged from the analysis, all of which are included in the supplementary material (Tables S2 and S3, available with the online version of this paper). For this discussion, four dominant pathways have been selected for analysis having consistencies greater than 80%, an accepted level of consistency for fsQCA (Ragin 2008; Kaminsky & Jordan 2017), high coverage, and including both developed and developing economies in the trial runs, as shown in Table 3. The scope of analysis for each dominant pathway is presented in Table 4. For example, Pathway 1 encompasses membership from both developing and developed countries with a consistency ranging from 0.80 to 0.93 and a unique coverage from 0.23 to 0.84 (Table 3). This pathway was observed in five different runs (Table 4) with a maximum of 64 countries analyzed.

Table 3

Dominant fsQCA results

Type of sanitationPathwayDistribution of countries with membership
ConsistencyUnique coverage
% Developing% Developed
Total access (TA) 1: pdi* ∼ idv 70–100 0–30 0.80–0.93 0.23–0.84 
 2: pdi* ∼ idv*mas*uai 86 14 0.81–0.83 0.61–0.63 
Sewerage connection (SC) 3: pdi*uai 40 60 0.93 0.15 
Onsite treatment (OT) 4: pdi* ∼ idv*uai 58 42 0.90 0.30 
Type of sanitationPathwayDistribution of countries with membership
ConsistencyUnique coverage
% Developing% Developed
Total access (TA) 1: pdi* ∼ idv 70–100 0–30 0.80–0.93 0.23–0.84 
 2: pdi* ∼ idv*mas*uai 86 14 0.81–0.83 0.61–0.63 
Sewerage connection (SC) 3: pdi*uai 40 60 0.93 0.15 
Onsite treatment (OT) 4: pdi* ∼ idv*uai 58 42 0.90 0.30 

Source: Country distribution membership from UN DESA (2014).

Table 4

Description of conditions used in fsQCA for resulting dominant pathways

PathwayRun characteristics
OutcomeTimeEconomic statusNumber of cases analyzed
1: pdi* ∼ idv TA 1990 All 63 
TA 2010 All 64 
TA Δ(2010–1990) Developed 27 
TA 1990 Developing 30 
TA 2010 Developing 30 
2: pdi* ∼ idv*mas*uai TA Δ(2010–1990) All 37 
3: pdi*uai SC 2012 All 37 
4: pdi* ∼ idv*uai OT 2012 All 37 
PathwayRun characteristics
OutcomeTimeEconomic statusNumber of cases analyzed
1: pdi* ∼ idv TA 1990 All 63 
TA 2010 All 64 
TA Δ(2010–1990) Developed 27 
TA 1990 Developing 30 
TA 2010 Developing 30 
2: pdi* ∼ idv*mas*uai TA Δ(2010–1990) All 37 
3: pdi*uai SC 2012 All 37 
4: pdi* ∼ idv*uai OT 2012 All 37 

TA, total access; SC, sewerage connection; OT, onsite treatment.

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