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We established two treatments for corn and three treatments for lettuce, each receiving different urine dosages. We also established one control treatment for each species (non-fertilized, only irrigated with tap water). Regardless of urine dose, all treatments were watered manually with tap water (corn: 400 mL/pot, 3 times/wk; lettuce: 180 mL/pot, 3 times/wk). Experiments were conducted in 8 L (lettuce) and 10 L (corn) pots filled with topsoil rich in organic matter, typical of soil in the São Paulo region (Lepsch et al. 1994). The corn and lettuce trials included ten replicate pots, each with three corn seeds or six lettuce seeds, for each treatment and control. Urine dosages were based on the nitrogen requirement of each species, the nitrogen content of urine, and previous studies evaluating urine for crop cultivation (Table 1). Urine was applied directly to holes made in the soil with a plastic watering can and urine application was followed by watering to avoid soil salinization and toxicity effects on the plants (Gensch et al. 2011).

Table 1

Application rates for each plant species and type of treatment

Treatment/SpeciesCornLettuce
25,000 L/ha (125 mL/pot) of neat urine applied weekly for 8 weeks (total: 200,000 L urine/ha)a 4,000 L/ha (16 mL/pot) of neat urine applied every 15 days (total: 12,000 L urine/ha)b 
10,800 L/ha (54 mL/pot) of neat urine applied at one time (35 days after seeding; total: 10,800 L urine/ha)c 75,000 L/ha (400 mL/pot) of neat urine diluted and applied as follows: 1st month: twice per week, 3:1 dilution (water:urine). 2nd month: twice per week, 5:1 dilution. 3rd month: once per week, 5:1 dilution. (Total: 1,500,000 L urine/ha)a 
No urine (control) 20,000 L/ha (51 mL/pot) of neat urine, one application 48 days after seeding (total: 20,000 L urine/ha)d 
– No urine (control) 
Treatment/SpeciesCornLettuce
25,000 L/ha (125 mL/pot) of neat urine applied weekly for 8 weeks (total: 200,000 L urine/ha)a 4,000 L/ha (16 mL/pot) of neat urine applied every 15 days (total: 12,000 L urine/ha)b 
10,800 L/ha (54 mL/pot) of neat urine applied at one time (35 days after seeding; total: 10,800 L urine/ha)c 75,000 L/ha (400 mL/pot) of neat urine diluted and applied as follows: 1st month: twice per week, 3:1 dilution (water:urine). 2nd month: twice per week, 5:1 dilution. 3rd month: once per week, 5:1 dilution. (Total: 1,500,000 L urine/ha)a 
No urine (control) 20,000 L/ha (51 mL/pot) of neat urine, one application 48 days after seeding (total: 20,000 L urine/ha)d 
– No urine (control) 

aMorgan (2005).

bIAC (2005).

cCoelho et al. (2011).

dGuadarrama et al. (2002).

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