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Table 2 shows the XRF results on the chemical composition of TiO2 before use and after HA degradation under UVC. As the purity of the commercial TiO2 used is 99.5%, some trace elements are expected, which are found to be Cl and SO3. After HA degradation, there are several substances attached on the TiO2 surface, namely, SiO2, Fe2O3, ZnO, and CaO. These impurities are most likely from the HA as a technical grade of the HA sodium salt was used. Although their amount is relatively low (less than 1% in total), they may inhibit the HA degradation through passivation of the TiO2 surface.

Table 2

Elemental composition of TiO2

ElementTiO2 (Initial)TiO2 (UVC)
TiO2 (%) 99.8 99.3 
Cl (%) 0.128 – 
SiO2 (%) – 0.462 
SO3 (ppm) 541 – 
Fe2O3 (ppm) – 966 
ZnO (ppm) – 989 
CaO (ppm) – 366 
ElementTiO2 (Initial)TiO2 (UVC)
TiO2 (%) 99.8 99.3 
Cl (%) 0.128 – 
SiO2 (%) – 0.462 
SO3 (ppm) 541 – 
Fe2O3 (ppm) – 966 
ZnO (ppm) – 989 
CaO (ppm) – 366 

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