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Table 1

Summary of experimental design

Column no.Column titleDiameter of column
Upper boundary flow conditionLower boundary flow conditionUpper boundary metal concentration conditionColumn compositionLength of runDescription of set
InternalExternal
Macropore 0.14 m 0.15 m Average flow: 10 cm/h Free flow 10,000 μg/L Cu; 10,000 μg/L Pb; 30,000 μg/L Zn Top filter layer (600 mm): 50% compost/50% coarse sand mix. Drainage layer (300 mm): coarse sand. Total column length: 1,200 m 300 min Each set comprised 4 runs. There were 3 sets in total 
Matrix 
Matrix 
Matrix 
Macropore 
Column no.Column titleDiameter of column
Upper boundary flow conditionLower boundary flow conditionUpper boundary metal concentration conditionColumn compositionLength of runDescription of set
InternalExternal
Macropore 0.14 m 0.15 m Average flow: 10 cm/h Free flow 10,000 μg/L Cu; 10,000 μg/L Pb; 30,000 μg/L Zn Top filter layer (600 mm): 50% compost/50% coarse sand mix. Drainage layer (300 mm): coarse sand. Total column length: 1,200 m 300 min Each set comprised 4 runs. There were 3 sets in total 
Matrix 
Matrix 
Matrix 
Macropore 
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