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Table 1

Summary of catchment descriptors used in this study

 MeanMedianMinimumMaximum
Area (km2333 137 2.84 5,620 
Climate indices     
 Mean annual precipitation (mm) 1,075 1,695 722 4,477 
 Precipitation seasonality indices1 2.3 2.2 1.3 4.4 
 Mean annual temperature (°C) 1.9 1.5 −2.4 7.2 
 Temperature seasonality indices2 18.9 18.7 12.5 27.4 
 Aridity indices3 0.14 0.12 0.02 0.35 
 Climate seasonality indices4 74 59 23 225 
Terrain characteristics     
 Mean slope (°) 11 10 26 
 Elevation range (m) 936 880 171 2,036 
 Mean elevation (m) 717 690 90 1,471 
 Mean topographic index (ln(m)) 15.1 15 11 19 
Land use     
 Artificial (%) 0.4 <0.001 0.0 8.0 
 Agriculture (%) 3.6 0.8 0.0 57.6 
 Forest (%) 86.0 89.2 34.8 100.0 
 Wetland (%) 6.6 2.2 0.0 41.6 
 Waterbody (%) 3.3 2.5 0.0 15.1 
Soil infiltration capacity5     
 Well suited (%) 0.1 <0.001 0.0 7.8 
 Medium suited (%) 2.0 1.3 0.0 10.4 
 Little suited (%) 18.8 9.8 0.0 81.4 
 Unsuitable (%) 27.2 26.1 0.0 90.7 
 Not classified (%) 42.2 37.4 0.0 98.7 
 MeanMedianMinimumMaximum
Area (km2333 137 2.84 5,620 
Climate indices     
 Mean annual precipitation (mm) 1,075 1,695 722 4,477 
 Precipitation seasonality indices1 2.3 2.2 1.3 4.4 
 Mean annual temperature (°C) 1.9 1.5 −2.4 7.2 
 Temperature seasonality indices2 18.9 18.7 12.5 27.4 
 Aridity indices3 0.14 0.12 0.02 0.35 
 Climate seasonality indices4 74 59 23 225 
Terrain characteristics     
 Mean slope (°) 11 10 26 
 Elevation range (m) 936 880 171 2,036 
 Mean elevation (m) 717 690 90 1,471 
 Mean topographic index (ln(m)) 15.1 15 11 19 
Land use     
 Artificial (%) 0.4 <0.001 0.0 8.0 
 Agriculture (%) 3.6 0.8 0.0 57.6 
 Forest (%) 86.0 89.2 34.8 100.0 
 Wetland (%) 6.6 2.2 0.0 41.6 
 Waterbody (%) 3.3 2.5 0.0 15.1 
Soil infiltration capacity5     
 Well suited (%) 0.1 <0.001 0.0 7.8 
 Medium suited (%) 2.0 1.3 0.0 10.4 
 Little suited (%) 18.8 9.8 0.0 81.4 
 Unsuitable (%) 27.2 26.1 0.0 90.7 
 Not classified (%) 42.2 37.4 0.0 98.7 

1Precipitation seasonality indices: the ratio between the three consecutive wettest and driest months for each watershed.

2Temperature seasonality indices: the mean temperature of the hottest month minus the mean temperature of the coldest month in °C.

3Aridity indices: the ratio between annual mean precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for each watershed (Budyko 1974; Arora 2002).

4Climate seasonality indices: , is half of amplitude of precipitation, is half of amplitude of potential evaporation and R is aridity indices (Ross 2003).

5Soil infiltration capacity is measured by the ‘suitability for infiltration’ based on soil types and geology, which is classified as ‘Most suited’, ‘Medium suited’, etc. Infiltration rate is a function of water content and soil properties (Elliot 2010).

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