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Table 7

Perceived service quality of latent parameters across household types and socioeconomic groups

Socioeconomic groupsToilet structure
Availability of water
Toilet maintenance
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
Type of toileta P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 
 Self-financed 0.552 0.311 0.471 0.653 0.111 0.822 
 Partially financed 0.376 0.329 −0.067 0.792 0.522 0.803 
 Fully subsidized −0.806 0.700 −0.597 0.898 −0.265 0.969 
Age (years)a P value: 0.310 P value: 0.788 P value: 0.403 
  <30 −0.079 0.918 −0.023 1.051 −0.181 0.952 
 30–39 −0.001 0.827 0.037 0.936 0.026 0.881 
 40–49 −0.049 0.827 −0.060 0.873 0.004 0.941 
  >49 0.123 0.750 0.043 0.890 0.062 0.893 
Genderb P value: 0.003 P value: 0.005 P value: 0.249 
 Male 0.048 0.802 0.051 0.911 −0.020 0.904 
 Female −0.273 0.903 −0.295 0.929 0.117 0.953 
Castea P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 P value: 0.584 
 Upper castes 0.299 0.560 0.248 0.787 0.037 0.873 
 ‘Backward’ castes 0.100 0.785 0.044 0.883 0.035 0.888 
 ‘Extremely backward’ castes −0.150 0.862 −0.243 1.013 −0.038 0.928 
 Scheduled castes −0.412 0.949 −0.342 0.941 −0.073 1.000 
Educationa P value: 0.000 P value: 0.002 P value: 0.000 
 Illiterate −0.270 0.851 −0.181 0.758 0.187 0.955 
 Up to class 5th −0.389 0.980 −0.237 0.932 −0.102 1.066 
 Up to class 8th −0.002 0.806 −0.059 0.933 0.195 0.874 
 Up to class 10th 0.085 0.776 −0.044 0.869 0.116 0.924 
 Up to class 12th 0.215 0.683 0.254 0.998 −0.349 0.736 
 Graduation and above 0.382 0.566 0.397 0.816 −0.261 0.741 
Economic statusa P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 
 Below poverty line −0.767 0.749 −0.620 0.924 −0.306 0.967 
 Low income groups −0.203 0.780 −0.234 0.829 0.198 0.939 
 Middle income groups 0.502 0.405 0.365 0.599 0.233 0.809 
 High income groups 0.573 0.293 0.567 0.734 −0.041 0.816 
Socioeconomic groupsToilet structure
Availability of water
Toilet maintenance
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
Type of toileta P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 
 Self-financed 0.552 0.311 0.471 0.653 0.111 0.822 
 Partially financed 0.376 0.329 −0.067 0.792 0.522 0.803 
 Fully subsidized −0.806 0.700 −0.597 0.898 −0.265 0.969 
Age (years)a P value: 0.310 P value: 0.788 P value: 0.403 
  <30 −0.079 0.918 −0.023 1.051 −0.181 0.952 
 30–39 −0.001 0.827 0.037 0.936 0.026 0.881 
 40–49 −0.049 0.827 −0.060 0.873 0.004 0.941 
  >49 0.123 0.750 0.043 0.890 0.062 0.893 
Genderb P value: 0.003 P value: 0.005 P value: 0.249 
 Male 0.048 0.802 0.051 0.911 −0.020 0.904 
 Female −0.273 0.903 −0.295 0.929 0.117 0.953 
Castea P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 P value: 0.584 
 Upper castes 0.299 0.560 0.248 0.787 0.037 0.873 
 ‘Backward’ castes 0.100 0.785 0.044 0.883 0.035 0.888 
 ‘Extremely backward’ castes −0.150 0.862 −0.243 1.013 −0.038 0.928 
 Scheduled castes −0.412 0.949 −0.342 0.941 −0.073 1.000 
Educationa P value: 0.000 P value: 0.002 P value: 0.000 
 Illiterate −0.270 0.851 −0.181 0.758 0.187 0.955 
 Up to class 5th −0.389 0.980 −0.237 0.932 −0.102 1.066 
 Up to class 8th −0.002 0.806 −0.059 0.933 0.195 0.874 
 Up to class 10th 0.085 0.776 −0.044 0.869 0.116 0.924 
 Up to class 12th 0.215 0.683 0.254 0.998 −0.349 0.736 
 Graduation and above 0.382 0.566 0.397 0.816 −0.261 0.741 
Economic statusa P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 P value: 0.000 
 Below poverty line −0.767 0.749 −0.620 0.924 −0.306 0.967 
 Low income groups −0.203 0.780 −0.234 0.829 0.198 0.939 
 Middle income groups 0.502 0.405 0.365 0.599 0.233 0.809 
 High income groups 0.573 0.293 0.567 0.734 −0.041 0.816 

aKruskal–Wallis test.

bMann–Whitney U test.

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