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Table 1

Social capital index distributions for select socio-demographic characteristics

Socio-demographic variablesN (%)Social capital scoreAssociation with social capital p value
Cluster-level data N = 32   
Region Amhara 16 (50.0) −0.198 (0.038) <0.001 
Oromia 16 (50.0) 0.106 (0.038)  
Woreda Kalu 8 (25.0) −0.328 (0.043) <0.001 
Kelela 8 (25.0) −0.068 (0.043)  
Dugda 8 (25.0) 0.105 (0.043)  
Bora 8 (25.0) 0.108 (0.043)  
Type of scheme Bore hole 15 (46.9) 0.110 (0.036) <0.001 
Gravity spring 7 (21.9) −0.300 (0.053)  
Shallow well 3 (9.4) −0.023 (0.081)  
Spot spring 7 (21.9) −0.136 (0.053)  
Individual-level data N = 640   
Gender Male 296 (46.5) 0.034 (0.025) <0.001 
Female 341 (53.5) −0.095 (0.023)  
Age (years) 18–30 138 (21.6) 0.033 (0.038) 0.07 
30–40 178 (27.8) 0.004 (0.031)  
40–50 154 (24.1) −0.096 (0.033)  
>50 170 (26.6) −0.083 (0.034)  
Years lived in community (mean = 33 years)* <33 332 (51.9) −0.015 (0.024) 0.18 
≥33 308 (48.1) −0.061 (0.025)  
Level of education No formal education 411 (65.0) −0.087 (0.021) 0.003 
Some primary (<grade 6) 139 (22.0) 0.078 (0.037)  
Completed primary (grade 8) 50 (7.9) −0.015 (0.060)  
Completed secondary (grade 12) 28 (4.4) −0.002 (0.070)  
Tertiary 4 (0.6) 0.100 (0.172)  
Household roof material Corrugated iron 379 (59.2) −0.061 (0.021) 0.06 
Wood/mud 4 (0.6) 0.306 (0.021)  
Thatch 257 (40.1) −0.001 (0.029)  
Number of people per household (mean = 5) 1–5 371 (58.0) −0.104 (0.021) <0.001 
More than 5 269 (42.0) −0.065 (0.026)  
Socio-demographic variablesN (%)Social capital scoreAssociation with social capital p value
Cluster-level data N = 32   
Region Amhara 16 (50.0) −0.198 (0.038) <0.001 
Oromia 16 (50.0) 0.106 (0.038)  
Woreda Kalu 8 (25.0) −0.328 (0.043) <0.001 
Kelela 8 (25.0) −0.068 (0.043)  
Dugda 8 (25.0) 0.105 (0.043)  
Bora 8 (25.0) 0.108 (0.043)  
Type of scheme Bore hole 15 (46.9) 0.110 (0.036) <0.001 
Gravity spring 7 (21.9) −0.300 (0.053)  
Shallow well 3 (9.4) −0.023 (0.081)  
Spot spring 7 (21.9) −0.136 (0.053)  
Individual-level data N = 640   
Gender Male 296 (46.5) 0.034 (0.025) <0.001 
Female 341 (53.5) −0.095 (0.023)  
Age (years) 18–30 138 (21.6) 0.033 (0.038) 0.07 
30–40 178 (27.8) 0.004 (0.031)  
40–50 154 (24.1) −0.096 (0.033)  
>50 170 (26.6) −0.083 (0.034)  
Years lived in community (mean = 33 years)* <33 332 (51.9) −0.015 (0.024) 0.18 
≥33 308 (48.1) −0.061 (0.025)  
Level of education No formal education 411 (65.0) −0.087 (0.021) 0.003 
Some primary (<grade 6) 139 (22.0) 0.078 (0.037)  
Completed primary (grade 8) 50 (7.9) −0.015 (0.060)  
Completed secondary (grade 12) 28 (4.4) −0.002 (0.070)  
Tertiary 4 (0.6) 0.100 (0.172)  
Household roof material Corrugated iron 379 (59.2) −0.061 (0.021) 0.06 
Wood/mud 4 (0.6) 0.306 (0.021)  
Thatch 257 (40.1) −0.001 (0.029)  
Number of people per household (mean = 5) 1–5 371 (58.0) −0.104 (0.021) <0.001 
More than 5 269 (42.0) −0.065 (0.026)  

*Break between these values occurred at the mean, following Bisung et al. (2014).

Break between these values occurred at the median/mean and quartiles (Bisung et al. 2014).

These p values are the result of comparing social capital values between groups using ANOVA.

Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation).

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