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Table 4

Associations between governance indicators and functionality score (N = 32)

 n high functionalityn not functionalAssociation with functionality score p value
Fee charged 
 Yes 16 <0.001* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Fee covers minor repairs 
 Yes 13 0.039* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Fee covers major repairs 
 Yes 0.038* 
 Somewhat 
 No 11 15 
Fee has increased in recent years 
 Yes 0.159* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
There is a caretaker/mechanic 
 Yes 16 0.004* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Caretaker is compensated 
 Yes 13 0.018* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Member of committee or caretaker is trained on how to perform minor repairs 
 Yes 11 0.267* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
How often are meetings? (specific time, when there is a problem, never) 
 Yes 16 0.001* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Women on committee 
 Mean (SE) 2.2 (0.22) 1.7 (0.25) 0.097 
There is a bank account for committee funds 
 Yes 10 0.169* 
 Somewhat 
 No 10 
Committee keeps financial records 
 Yes 16 11 0.054* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
There have been external financial audits on water committee records 
 Yes 0.521* 
 Somewhat 
 No 10 
Overall governance score 
 Mean (SE) 0.37 (0.08) −0.39 (0.17) <0.001 
 n high functionalityn not functionalAssociation with functionality score p value
Fee charged 
 Yes 16 <0.001* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Fee covers minor repairs 
 Yes 13 0.039* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Fee covers major repairs 
 Yes 0.038* 
 Somewhat 
 No 11 15 
Fee has increased in recent years 
 Yes 0.159* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
There is a caretaker/mechanic 
 Yes 16 0.004* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Caretaker is compensated 
 Yes 13 0.018* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Member of committee or caretaker is trained on how to perform minor repairs 
 Yes 11 0.267* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
How often are meetings? (specific time, when there is a problem, never) 
 Yes 16 0.001* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
Women on committee 
 Mean (SE) 2.2 (0.22) 1.7 (0.25) 0.097 
There is a bank account for committee funds 
 Yes 10 0.169* 
 Somewhat 
 No 10 
Committee keeps financial records 
 Yes 16 11 0.054* 
 Somewhat 
 No 
There have been external financial audits on water committee records 
 Yes 0.521* 
 Somewhat 
 No 10 
Overall governance score 
 Mean (SE) 0.37 (0.08) −0.39 (0.17) <0.001 

*p values were calculated using tests between functionality (yes/no) and governance indicators.

p values were calculated using t-tests between continuous governance variables and binary functionality scores.

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