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Table 1.

Categories and specific decision elements often recommended for inclusion in urban sanitation decision-making in order to increase comprehensiveness (based on Ramôa et al., 2016).

CategoryDecision element
Multi-sectoral approach
Sanitation planning recognises and includes linkages to other sectors 
Water supply 
Stormwater drainage 
Solid waste management 
Agriculture 
Energy 
Spatial planning 
Multiplicity of sustainable dimensions
Sanitation planning recognises influences from all dimensions of sustainability and the need to positively impact them 
Technology and operation 
Financial and economic issues 
Institutional aspects 
Socio-cultural aspects 
Environment and natural resources 
Health and hygiene 
System analysis perspectivea
Sanitation planning recognises and specifies complementary solutions for each segment of the supply chain 
Interface/Collection 
Sludge emptying 
Sludge/Wastewater transport 
Sludge/Wastewater treatment 
Sludge/Wastewater disposal/reuse 
Coexistence of planning scales
Sanitation planning recognises different applicable intervention scales 
City-wide scale 
Localised small-scale 
CategoryDecision element
Multi-sectoral approach
Sanitation planning recognises and includes linkages to other sectors 
Water supply 
Stormwater drainage 
Solid waste management 
Agriculture 
Energy 
Spatial planning 
Multiplicity of sustainable dimensions
Sanitation planning recognises influences from all dimensions of sustainability and the need to positively impact them 
Technology and operation 
Financial and economic issues 
Institutional aspects 
Socio-cultural aspects 
Environment and natural resources 
Health and hygiene 
System analysis perspectivea
Sanitation planning recognises and specifies complementary solutions for each segment of the supply chain 
Interface/Collection 
Sludge emptying 
Sludge/Wastewater transport 
Sludge/Wastewater treatment 
Sludge/Wastewater disposal/reuse 
Coexistence of planning scales
Sanitation planning recognises different applicable intervention scales 
City-wide scale 
Localised small-scale 

aThe division of sludge/wastewater intends to distinguish dry sanitation systems, whose main product is sludge, from water-based sanitation systems, which result in the production of wastewater.

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