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Table 1

Different values of head loss coefficient (K) at different models

Works doneHead loss coefficientExperimental condition (Φmp)Surcharge ratio range
s/Φms/Φp
Marsalek (1981)  0.210 1.923   
Arao & Kusuda (1999)  0.18–0.58 3.60 0.55–1.67 2–6 
Lau et al. (2008)  0.28–0.69 9.08 0.65–0.82 5.90–7.45 
This work 
 RNG k-ɛ 0.193 3.20 0.98 3.13 
 Realizable k-ɛ 0.156 
 k-ω SST 0.284 
 LRR 0.265 
Works doneHead loss coefficientExperimental condition (Φmp)Surcharge ratio range
s/Φms/Φp
Marsalek (1981)  0.210 1.923   
Arao & Kusuda (1999)  0.18–0.58 3.60 0.55–1.67 2–6 
Lau et al. (2008)  0.28–0.69 9.08 0.65–0.82 5.90–7.45 
This work 
 RNG k-ɛ 0.193 3.20 0.98 3.13 
 Realizable k-ɛ 0.156 
 k-ω SST 0.284 
 LRR 0.265 
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