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Table 4

Contextual challenges for sludge removal entrepreneurs

CategoryChallengeNumber of entrepreneurs reporting this is a ‘big challenge’ (n = 24)
Market High level of competition (too many similar businesses) 19 (79%) 
Market Market saturation 17 (71%) 
Market Not enough sales to sustain the business or low demand 16 (67%) 
Market Lack of access to information 13 (54%) 
Market Lack of social or business networks 12 (50%) 
Market Lack of business partnership 11 (46%) 
Market Unfavourable location 10 (42%) 
Financial Lack of access to finance for customers 13 (54%) 
Financial High interest rate for bank loans 12 (50%) 
Financial Not enough alternative sources of finance other than the bank 11 (46%) 
Financial Unable to meet bank requirements for loans 10 (42%) 
Financial Unofficial retributions/taxes 10 (42%) 
Financial Not enough access to banking services 9 (38%) 
Financial Official taxes 9 (38%) 
Financial Too many instalment customers late on payments 6 (25%) 
Human resources Not enough time 18 (75%) 
Human resources Not enough marketing skills 14 (58%) 
Human resources Hard to find good staff with the right skills 12 (50%) 
Human resources Not enough business knowledge and skills 11 (46%) 
Human resources Not enough technical knowledge and skills 11 (46%) 
Human resources Lack of access to continuing training opportunities and/or mentoring 10 (42%) 
Government & regulation Unclear or lack of government legislation 15 (63%) 
Government & regulation Lack of support from government 14 (58%) 
Operational High cost of materials and equipment 21 (88%) 
Operational High fixed expenses 14 (58%) 
CategoryChallengeNumber of entrepreneurs reporting this is a ‘big challenge’ (n = 24)
Market High level of competition (too many similar businesses) 19 (79%) 
Market Market saturation 17 (71%) 
Market Not enough sales to sustain the business or low demand 16 (67%) 
Market Lack of access to information 13 (54%) 
Market Lack of social or business networks 12 (50%) 
Market Lack of business partnership 11 (46%) 
Market Unfavourable location 10 (42%) 
Financial Lack of access to finance for customers 13 (54%) 
Financial High interest rate for bank loans 12 (50%) 
Financial Not enough alternative sources of finance other than the bank 11 (46%) 
Financial Unable to meet bank requirements for loans 10 (42%) 
Financial Unofficial retributions/taxes 10 (42%) 
Financial Not enough access to banking services 9 (38%) 
Financial Official taxes 9 (38%) 
Financial Too many instalment customers late on payments 6 (25%) 
Human resources Not enough time 18 (75%) 
Human resources Not enough marketing skills 14 (58%) 
Human resources Hard to find good staff with the right skills 12 (50%) 
Human resources Not enough business knowledge and skills 11 (46%) 
Human resources Not enough technical knowledge and skills 11 (46%) 
Human resources Lack of access to continuing training opportunities and/or mentoring 10 (42%) 
Government & regulation Unclear or lack of government legislation 15 (63%) 
Government & regulation Lack of support from government 14 (58%) 
Operational High cost of materials and equipment 21 (88%) 
Operational High fixed expenses 14 (58%) 
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