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Table 2

Literature on urban settings

Author(s), yearObjective(s)Setting, year and sampleMethodsDefinition of reliability/synonymType of supplyEstimates of (un)reliability
Aderibigbe et al. (2008)  Determine the availability, adequacy and quality of water supply Urban Nigeria: 750 female respondents randomly selected from 3 communities Descriptive cross-sectional study, using structured questionnaires None stated 62.9% of respondents house connection 15% had water more than 3 times a week; 30.1% had water 2 or 3 times a week; 54.9% had water occasionally or once a week 
Andey & Kelkar (2009)  Evaluate influence of continuous and intermittent water on domestic water consumption Urban India: 4 cities; Ghaziabad: 35 households out of 48; Jaipur: 195 households out of 206; Nagpur: 214 households out of 330; Panji: 51 households out of 120 households Six measurements repeated times over 1 year for both modes of supply. Average consumption calculated from meter readings, duration of survey and number of people in households None stated Piped supply Ghaziabad: 10 hours/day; Jaipur: 3 hours/day; Nagpur: 16 hours/day; Panji: 5 hours/day 
Asian Development Bank (2007)  Help water utilities southeast Asia to assess their performance Urban southeast Asia 2005: 40 water utilities; 17 from Vietnam, 17 from the Philippines, 5 from Malaysia and 1 from Lao PDR Water utility questionnaire None stated Piped supply 24 hours a day on average for Malaysia and Lao; 23 hours a day on average for Vietnam and the Philippines 
Ayoub & Malaeb (2006)  Investigate impact of intermittent supply on water quality Urban Lebanon 2003–2004: 181 water samples Quantitative. Samples collected from water network before storage in household tanks and after storage from household tanks None stated Piped supply Once every 2 days 
Baisa et al. (2010)  (i) Develop a model describing the optimal intertemporal depletion of each household's private water storage if it is uncertain when water will next arrive to replenish supplies; (ii) evaluate the potential welfare gains that would occur if alternative modes of water provision were implemented Urban Mexico 2005 data Model calibrated using data from the Mexican National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure survey None stated Piped supply 1 day per week: 2.8%; 2 days per week: 2.1%; 3 days per week: 3.8%; 4 days per week: 0.2%; 5 days per week: 1.3%; 6 days per week: 0.2%; Daily at limited hours: 21.6%; Daily at all hours: 68.0% 
Caprara et al. (2009)  Investigate the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics and community practices that take place indoors (e.g., garbage disposal, water storage practices) affecting Ae. aegypti Urban Brazil 2005 Mixed methods. Purposive sampling of 6 blocks in city of Fortaleza 204 households total: 51 middle class households, 153 under-privileged households None stated Piped supply Middle class: 2–5 dys/wk: 0; 6–7 dys/wk: 39 (100%); 3–12 hrs/dy: 23 (59%); 13–24 hrs/dy: 16 (41%). Under-privileged class: 2–5 dys/wk: 30 (21.4%); 6–7 dys/wk: 110 (78.6%); 3–12 hrs/dy: 37 (26.4%); 13–24 hrs/dy: 103 (73.6%) 
Gulyani et al. (2005)  Examine current water use and unit costs in three Kenyan cities and test the willingness of the unconnected to pay for piped water, yard connections, or an improved water kiosk (standpipe) service Urban Kenya 2000: 674 households interviewed in 22 sites in the three urban areas Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires None stated House connection; Yard tap; Kiosk House connection: 36% <8 hrs/dy, 28% 8–16 hrs/dy, 36% >16 hrs/dy. Yard tap: 47% <8 hrs/dy, 32% 8–16 hrs/dy, 21% >16 hrs/day. Kiosks: 36% <8 hrs/dy, 54% 8–16 hrs/dy, 10% >16 hrs/dy 
Howard (2002)  Develop a model of water supply surveillance for urban areas of developing countries that provides reliable assessment of water supplies, with particular emphasis on the urban poor Urban Uganda 1997–2000: 1,652 water points in 10 locations Multi-criteria zoning to identify vulnerable communities and structured observation of water points and structured questionnaires Discontinuity was defined as being the physical absence of water flowing from the source Piped water. Point sources: protected springs boreholes/tubewells with handpumps, dug wells with handpump 309 (18.7%) water points had discontinuity. Piped: 245 (25.7%); Protected: 33 (6.7%); Unprotected: 31 (15.1%); Discontinuity occasional (70%) seasonal interruption relatively common and daily/monthly interruptions far less common 
Mycoo (1996)  Provide a demand-oriented perspective on water provision for domestic users, examining cost recovery potential based on household willingness to pay more for an improved service and water pricing Urban Trinidad: Stratified sampling of 6 settlements (total of 420, sampling rate 0.34%). Criteria: location, elevation and slope, income, housing and land tenure, level of service and the number of hours of water received Cross-sectional survey using contingent ranking, contingent valuation and observed behaviour of the household in producing water None stated Piped: House connection; Yard tap; Communal tap 4S% of customers receive a 24 hour supply seven days a week 
Pattanayak et al. (2005)  Evaluate how coping costs and willingness to pay vary across types of water users and income Urban Nepal 2001: Clustered sampling (probability-to-size), 1500 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley Mixed methods cross-sectional survey using 17 purposive, open-ended discussions, 2 focus groups, and 150 pre-tests in designing the survey instrument None stated 70% piped, 30%: private wells, public taps, stone spouts, and water vendors. About 1% of the connected households share a connection with other households Water was available from private connections on average about 2 hours per day in the wet season and 1 hour per day in the dry season 
Shah (2003)  Establish the value of water supply services to people of Zanzibar Town by measuring willingness to pay for reliable water services, to provide basis for change of the financing policy for water supply services management Urban Zanzibar: 300 households out of 10 Shehias; (0.94% of the town's households). In some instances household had to be targeted to balance political affiliations Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaire Availability of water at a point of consumption (household or public stand-pipe) for 24 hrs a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year Piped supply 20.7% had ‘no problem’ with supply; 27% had water for 1–5 hrs/dy; 24.3% for 5–10 hrs/dy; 13% 5–10 hrs/dy; 12.7% for 15–24 hrs/dy; 0.3% did not respond and 0.7% did not know 
Thompson et al. (2000)  Assess changes in domestic water use Urban Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda 1997: Unpiped households: 99; Piped households: 349 Cross-sectional follow up study, 30 years later, using semi-structured interviews, observation, interviews with key informants, field observation, review of secondary literature None stated Piped in house connection Water available 24 hrs/dy: 56%, <12 hrs/dy: approximately 40%; 1–5 hrs/dy: approximately 20% 
Virjee & Gaskin (2010)  Ascertain the willingness to pay for changes in the level of service experienced by users Trinidad and Tobago 2003: The Central Statistical Office's Continuous Sample Survey of Population sampling method was used to randomly select 1,419 households, using a two-stage stratification scheme based on geography and labour force characteristics Cross-sectional multi-part survey None stated WASA in-house piped connection only; WASA in-house connection + secondary source; No in-house connection Water available 24 hrs/dy, 7 dys/week: 27%; Almost 30% received no water from WASA at all during the time of the survey. 68% had water storage tanks on their premises with an average installed capacity of 610 gallons. As a result of these coping mechanisms, 82% of those with tanks had a 24-hour water supply 
Widiyati (2011)  Present evidence of willingness to pay to avoid costs associated with intermittent water supply from Bandung Municipality in Indonesia Urban Indonesia 2011: 200 people interviewed in survey Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires None stated Piped 24 hour supply: 60%. For about 40%: water is rationed from 1 hour every 2 days to about 18 hours per day. Mean hours of supply in actual study was 2.4 based on a numbered scale of 1: ≤3 hrs/day, 2:3–6 hrs/dy; 3: 7–10 hrs/dy; 4: 11–13 hrs/dy; 5: other 
Zérah (1998, 2000)  Study 1: Measure the costs of unreliability Study 2: Understand the household demand for a service by assessing the actual behaviour adopted by households when they have to cope with an inadequate service Urban India 1995: Two stratified samples of 678 households in four zones of urban Delhi Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires A service is reliable if it is provided in time, and with the quality and the quantity required Piped On average, 13 hrs/dy, about 40% have water around the clock, about 13% do not get water at all. High pressure: 8.5%; Average pressure: 49.1%; Low pressure: 32.9%; No pressure: 9.5%, >12 hrs: 50.3%; 6–12 hrs:8.6%; 2–6 hrs: 28.2%; ≤2 hrs: 12.8% 
Zérah (2002)  Determine the level of service provided by the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC); assess the existing households' coping strategies; evaluate the cost of water supply and sanitation and measure the level of satisfaction of the inhabitants of Vijayawada Urban India 2002: 167 households in 15 wards (out of 50 wards) and in neighbouring villages of Vijayawada Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires None stated Piped connections, private boreholes, public taps Municipal water connection: 3.83 hours of supply in summer, 3.73 in winter. Private boreholes: On average, households spend almost 2 hours to pump water. Public taps: water is available every day in winter in 93% of the cases and in 96% of the cases in summer. Otherwise, water is available on alternate days. In winter and in summer, supply is similar (around 6 hours) 
Author(s), yearObjective(s)Setting, year and sampleMethodsDefinition of reliability/synonymType of supplyEstimates of (un)reliability
Aderibigbe et al. (2008)  Determine the availability, adequacy and quality of water supply Urban Nigeria: 750 female respondents randomly selected from 3 communities Descriptive cross-sectional study, using structured questionnaires None stated 62.9% of respondents house connection 15% had water more than 3 times a week; 30.1% had water 2 or 3 times a week; 54.9% had water occasionally or once a week 
Andey & Kelkar (2009)  Evaluate influence of continuous and intermittent water on domestic water consumption Urban India: 4 cities; Ghaziabad: 35 households out of 48; Jaipur: 195 households out of 206; Nagpur: 214 households out of 330; Panji: 51 households out of 120 households Six measurements repeated times over 1 year for both modes of supply. Average consumption calculated from meter readings, duration of survey and number of people in households None stated Piped supply Ghaziabad: 10 hours/day; Jaipur: 3 hours/day; Nagpur: 16 hours/day; Panji: 5 hours/day 
Asian Development Bank (2007)  Help water utilities southeast Asia to assess their performance Urban southeast Asia 2005: 40 water utilities; 17 from Vietnam, 17 from the Philippines, 5 from Malaysia and 1 from Lao PDR Water utility questionnaire None stated Piped supply 24 hours a day on average for Malaysia and Lao; 23 hours a day on average for Vietnam and the Philippines 
Ayoub & Malaeb (2006)  Investigate impact of intermittent supply on water quality Urban Lebanon 2003–2004: 181 water samples Quantitative. Samples collected from water network before storage in household tanks and after storage from household tanks None stated Piped supply Once every 2 days 
Baisa et al. (2010)  (i) Develop a model describing the optimal intertemporal depletion of each household's private water storage if it is uncertain when water will next arrive to replenish supplies; (ii) evaluate the potential welfare gains that would occur if alternative modes of water provision were implemented Urban Mexico 2005 data Model calibrated using data from the Mexican National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure survey None stated Piped supply 1 day per week: 2.8%; 2 days per week: 2.1%; 3 days per week: 3.8%; 4 days per week: 0.2%; 5 days per week: 1.3%; 6 days per week: 0.2%; Daily at limited hours: 21.6%; Daily at all hours: 68.0% 
Caprara et al. (2009)  Investigate the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics and community practices that take place indoors (e.g., garbage disposal, water storage practices) affecting Ae. aegypti Urban Brazil 2005 Mixed methods. Purposive sampling of 6 blocks in city of Fortaleza 204 households total: 51 middle class households, 153 under-privileged households None stated Piped supply Middle class: 2–5 dys/wk: 0; 6–7 dys/wk: 39 (100%); 3–12 hrs/dy: 23 (59%); 13–24 hrs/dy: 16 (41%). Under-privileged class: 2–5 dys/wk: 30 (21.4%); 6–7 dys/wk: 110 (78.6%); 3–12 hrs/dy: 37 (26.4%); 13–24 hrs/dy: 103 (73.6%) 
Gulyani et al. (2005)  Examine current water use and unit costs in three Kenyan cities and test the willingness of the unconnected to pay for piped water, yard connections, or an improved water kiosk (standpipe) service Urban Kenya 2000: 674 households interviewed in 22 sites in the three urban areas Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires None stated House connection; Yard tap; Kiosk House connection: 36% <8 hrs/dy, 28% 8–16 hrs/dy, 36% >16 hrs/dy. Yard tap: 47% <8 hrs/dy, 32% 8–16 hrs/dy, 21% >16 hrs/day. Kiosks: 36% <8 hrs/dy, 54% 8–16 hrs/dy, 10% >16 hrs/dy 
Howard (2002)  Develop a model of water supply surveillance for urban areas of developing countries that provides reliable assessment of water supplies, with particular emphasis on the urban poor Urban Uganda 1997–2000: 1,652 water points in 10 locations Multi-criteria zoning to identify vulnerable communities and structured observation of water points and structured questionnaires Discontinuity was defined as being the physical absence of water flowing from the source Piped water. Point sources: protected springs boreholes/tubewells with handpumps, dug wells with handpump 309 (18.7%) water points had discontinuity. Piped: 245 (25.7%); Protected: 33 (6.7%); Unprotected: 31 (15.1%); Discontinuity occasional (70%) seasonal interruption relatively common and daily/monthly interruptions far less common 
Mycoo (1996)  Provide a demand-oriented perspective on water provision for domestic users, examining cost recovery potential based on household willingness to pay more for an improved service and water pricing Urban Trinidad: Stratified sampling of 6 settlements (total of 420, sampling rate 0.34%). Criteria: location, elevation and slope, income, housing and land tenure, level of service and the number of hours of water received Cross-sectional survey using contingent ranking, contingent valuation and observed behaviour of the household in producing water None stated Piped: House connection; Yard tap; Communal tap 4S% of customers receive a 24 hour supply seven days a week 
Pattanayak et al. (2005)  Evaluate how coping costs and willingness to pay vary across types of water users and income Urban Nepal 2001: Clustered sampling (probability-to-size), 1500 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley Mixed methods cross-sectional survey using 17 purposive, open-ended discussions, 2 focus groups, and 150 pre-tests in designing the survey instrument None stated 70% piped, 30%: private wells, public taps, stone spouts, and water vendors. About 1% of the connected households share a connection with other households Water was available from private connections on average about 2 hours per day in the wet season and 1 hour per day in the dry season 
Shah (2003)  Establish the value of water supply services to people of Zanzibar Town by measuring willingness to pay for reliable water services, to provide basis for change of the financing policy for water supply services management Urban Zanzibar: 300 households out of 10 Shehias; (0.94% of the town's households). In some instances household had to be targeted to balance political affiliations Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaire Availability of water at a point of consumption (household or public stand-pipe) for 24 hrs a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year Piped supply 20.7% had ‘no problem’ with supply; 27% had water for 1–5 hrs/dy; 24.3% for 5–10 hrs/dy; 13% 5–10 hrs/dy; 12.7% for 15–24 hrs/dy; 0.3% did not respond and 0.7% did not know 
Thompson et al. (2000)  Assess changes in domestic water use Urban Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda 1997: Unpiped households: 99; Piped households: 349 Cross-sectional follow up study, 30 years later, using semi-structured interviews, observation, interviews with key informants, field observation, review of secondary literature None stated Piped in house connection Water available 24 hrs/dy: 56%, <12 hrs/dy: approximately 40%; 1–5 hrs/dy: approximately 20% 
Virjee & Gaskin (2010)  Ascertain the willingness to pay for changes in the level of service experienced by users Trinidad and Tobago 2003: The Central Statistical Office's Continuous Sample Survey of Population sampling method was used to randomly select 1,419 households, using a two-stage stratification scheme based on geography and labour force characteristics Cross-sectional multi-part survey None stated WASA in-house piped connection only; WASA in-house connection + secondary source; No in-house connection Water available 24 hrs/dy, 7 dys/week: 27%; Almost 30% received no water from WASA at all during the time of the survey. 68% had water storage tanks on their premises with an average installed capacity of 610 gallons. As a result of these coping mechanisms, 82% of those with tanks had a 24-hour water supply 
Widiyati (2011)  Present evidence of willingness to pay to avoid costs associated with intermittent water supply from Bandung Municipality in Indonesia Urban Indonesia 2011: 200 people interviewed in survey Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires None stated Piped 24 hour supply: 60%. For about 40%: water is rationed from 1 hour every 2 days to about 18 hours per day. Mean hours of supply in actual study was 2.4 based on a numbered scale of 1: ≤3 hrs/day, 2:3–6 hrs/dy; 3: 7–10 hrs/dy; 4: 11–13 hrs/dy; 5: other 
Zérah (1998, 2000)  Study 1: Measure the costs of unreliability Study 2: Understand the household demand for a service by assessing the actual behaviour adopted by households when they have to cope with an inadequate service Urban India 1995: Two stratified samples of 678 households in four zones of urban Delhi Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires A service is reliable if it is provided in time, and with the quality and the quantity required Piped On average, 13 hrs/dy, about 40% have water around the clock, about 13% do not get water at all. High pressure: 8.5%; Average pressure: 49.1%; Low pressure: 32.9%; No pressure: 9.5%, >12 hrs: 50.3%; 6–12 hrs:8.6%; 2–6 hrs: 28.2%; ≤2 hrs: 12.8% 
Zérah (2002)  Determine the level of service provided by the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC); assess the existing households' coping strategies; evaluate the cost of water supply and sanitation and measure the level of satisfaction of the inhabitants of Vijayawada Urban India 2002: 167 households in 15 wards (out of 50 wards) and in neighbouring villages of Vijayawada Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaires None stated Piped connections, private boreholes, public taps Municipal water connection: 3.83 hours of supply in summer, 3.73 in winter. Private boreholes: On average, households spend almost 2 hours to pump water. Public taps: water is available every day in winter in 93% of the cases and in 96% of the cases in summer. Otherwise, water is available on alternate days. In winter and in summer, supply is similar (around 6 hours) 
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