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Table 4

Literature on both urban and rural settings

Author(s), yearObjective(s)Setting, year and sampleMethodsDefinition of reliability/synonymType of supplyEstimates of (un)reliability
Akosa (1990)  Develop of a Data Envelopment Analysis method to combine assessment of technical, financial, economic, institutional, social and environmental aspects of water supply and sanitation projects Rural and urban Ghana, 1986–1988: 6 water supply projects over a 30-month period Cross sectional surveys with observation, records from treatment plants, interviews with plant operators None stated Piped drilled wells with handpumps; Hand-dug wells with handpumps 
Asian Development Bank (2009)  Assess project performance and identify lessons for maximising the development effectiveness of water supply and sanitation interventions, by conducting rigorous impact evaluation Rural and urban Punjab, Pakistan: 7 randomly selected districts of the 30 covered by the Punjab Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project (PCWSSP) and the Punjab Community Water Supply & Sanitation Project (PCWSS). 115 subprojects were identified using stratified random sampling, a total of 1,301 treatment households covered by a project and 1,301 comparison households outside the projects Mixed methods using key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and household surveys. Comparison communities identified using district census reports. Community-level parameters used for matching: (i) total village area; (ii) number of households with potable water; (iii) average household size; (iv) literacy rates None stated 92% of the project communities had a community water supply system, while 8% of comparison communities did. 24% depended on hand pumps in project areas and 54% in the comparison communities. 40% served by tube wells in project communities and 24% in comparison communities 89% PCWSSP functional, and 68% of PRWSSP. Households receiving water received on average 5 hours of supply per day. 18% of households in project areas used suction machines to deal with low pressure. Down time less than 3 days for 2/3 of major repairs 
Bourgois et al. (2013)  Survey of the quantity and quality of existing water access points in three districts in Sierra Leone Rural and Urban Sierra Leone: 2,859 drinking water access systems in 3 districts Survey of water points and interviewers with local leaders of villages None stated Spring box: 2; bore hole: 499; hand-dug well: 2,028; open well: 330 30% of the finished, complete borehole systems were non-functional due to a broken pump 
O'Hara et al. (2008)  Quantify current level of access to safe water and sanitation in rural and urban communities across the Republic of Kazakhstan Rural and urban Kazakhstan 2005: 7,515 people (0.05% of the population) Cross-sectional in-depth questionnaire survey administered to 7,515 people; 250 semi-structured interviews with individuals from urban and rural settlements, as well as officials working in various organisations concerned with water supply and health issues; and 16 focus group discussions with a range of stakeholder groups None stated Piped Urban dwellers report service cuts on 6 days a month for 8–10 hours per day. Rural dwellers report cuts of 15–16 hours on an average of 21 days a month. People living in upper floors of high-rise buildings have cut-offs due to low pressure 
Pan American Health Organization (2001)  Monitor and evaluate the situation of drinking water and sanitation in the region of the Americas Rural and urban parts of the Americas** Questionnaires collation of information already existing in the countries, through consultations of documents and reports of entities of the sector and government institutions, results of household surveys, applied research and sectoral analysis or other pertinent studies conducted in the sector None stated Piped and unpiped Urban systems provided with water intermittently: 0–100%. Urban population provided with water intermittently: 0–99.9%. Rural systems in operation: 6–100% 
Author(s), yearObjective(s)Setting, year and sampleMethodsDefinition of reliability/synonymType of supplyEstimates of (un)reliability
Akosa (1990)  Develop of a Data Envelopment Analysis method to combine assessment of technical, financial, economic, institutional, social and environmental aspects of water supply and sanitation projects Rural and urban Ghana, 1986–1988: 6 water supply projects over a 30-month period Cross sectional surveys with observation, records from treatment plants, interviews with plant operators None stated Piped drilled wells with handpumps; Hand-dug wells with handpumps 
Asian Development Bank (2009)  Assess project performance and identify lessons for maximising the development effectiveness of water supply and sanitation interventions, by conducting rigorous impact evaluation Rural and urban Punjab, Pakistan: 7 randomly selected districts of the 30 covered by the Punjab Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project (PCWSSP) and the Punjab Community Water Supply & Sanitation Project (PCWSS). 115 subprojects were identified using stratified random sampling, a total of 1,301 treatment households covered by a project and 1,301 comparison households outside the projects Mixed methods using key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and household surveys. Comparison communities identified using district census reports. Community-level parameters used for matching: (i) total village area; (ii) number of households with potable water; (iii) average household size; (iv) literacy rates None stated 92% of the project communities had a community water supply system, while 8% of comparison communities did. 24% depended on hand pumps in project areas and 54% in the comparison communities. 40% served by tube wells in project communities and 24% in comparison communities 89% PCWSSP functional, and 68% of PRWSSP. Households receiving water received on average 5 hours of supply per day. 18% of households in project areas used suction machines to deal with low pressure. Down time less than 3 days for 2/3 of major repairs 
Bourgois et al. (2013)  Survey of the quantity and quality of existing water access points in three districts in Sierra Leone Rural and Urban Sierra Leone: 2,859 drinking water access systems in 3 districts Survey of water points and interviewers with local leaders of villages None stated Spring box: 2; bore hole: 499; hand-dug well: 2,028; open well: 330 30% of the finished, complete borehole systems were non-functional due to a broken pump 
O'Hara et al. (2008)  Quantify current level of access to safe water and sanitation in rural and urban communities across the Republic of Kazakhstan Rural and urban Kazakhstan 2005: 7,515 people (0.05% of the population) Cross-sectional in-depth questionnaire survey administered to 7,515 people; 250 semi-structured interviews with individuals from urban and rural settlements, as well as officials working in various organisations concerned with water supply and health issues; and 16 focus group discussions with a range of stakeholder groups None stated Piped Urban dwellers report service cuts on 6 days a month for 8–10 hours per day. Rural dwellers report cuts of 15–16 hours on an average of 21 days a month. People living in upper floors of high-rise buildings have cut-offs due to low pressure 
Pan American Health Organization (2001)  Monitor and evaluate the situation of drinking water and sanitation in the region of the Americas Rural and urban parts of the Americas** Questionnaires collation of information already existing in the countries, through consultations of documents and reports of entities of the sector and government institutions, results of household surveys, applied research and sectoral analysis or other pertinent studies conducted in the sector None stated Piped and unpiped Urban systems provided with water intermittently: 0–100%. Urban population provided with water intermittently: 0–99.9%. Rural systems in operation: 6–100% 

*Accra-Tema Water Supply: Power outages involved 193 faults lasting a total of 707 hrs 7 min in 3 years (1986–88). Frequency of fault: 1 fault in 5.67 days. Duration: average 3.67 hrs/fault. Plant down time: 2.7%.

Borehole water supply: 21.7% down time.

Package plant water supply: 20.3% down time. % of time when plant was operating with inadequate supply of chemicals (including periods of chemical rationing) 58.7%.

2,500 Drilled wells water supply: Target established is 90% of pump operational at all times. Achievement is 85% of all handpumps operational. Down time is 15%.

3,000 Drilled well water supply: Target established is 90% of pumps operating at all times. Achievement is 40% of all hand pumps operational. Down time is 60%.

Hand dug well: Pump down time is calculated as 2.3% but water is available through the hatch.

**Countries covered in the survey were: Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadalupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela and Virgin Islands.

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