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Table 1

List of GCMs extracted for use in this study

Climate modelInstitution
MIROC-ESM Météo-France/Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, France 
CNRM-CM5 Météo-France/Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, France 
CanESM2 Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Canada 
FGOALS-s2 National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG)/Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China 
BNU-ESM Beijing Normal University 
MIROC5 Center for Climate System Research (University of Tokyo), National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Frontier Research Center for Global Change (JAMSTEC), Japan 
GFDL-ESM2G U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), USA 
MIROC-ESM-CHEM Center for Climate System Research (University of Tokyo), National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Frontier Research Center for Global Change (JAMSTEC), Japan 
GFDL-ESM2M Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), USA 
MRI-CGCM3 Meteorological Research Institute, Japan 
Bcc-csm1-1 Beijing Climate Center (BCC), China Meteorological Administration (CMA) 
Climate modelInstitution
MIROC-ESM Météo-France/Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, France 
CNRM-CM5 Météo-France/Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, France 
CanESM2 Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Canada 
FGOALS-s2 National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG)/Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China 
BNU-ESM Beijing Normal University 
MIROC5 Center for Climate System Research (University of Tokyo), National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Frontier Research Center for Global Change (JAMSTEC), Japan 
GFDL-ESM2G U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), USA 
MIROC-ESM-CHEM Center for Climate System Research (University of Tokyo), National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Frontier Research Center for Global Change (JAMSTEC), Japan 
GFDL-ESM2M Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), USA 
MRI-CGCM3 Meteorological Research Institute, Japan 
Bcc-csm1-1 Beijing Climate Center (BCC), China Meteorological Administration (CMA) 
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