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Table 1

Characteristics of study villages: selected variables

VariableVillage status
Combined n (%)
Intervention n (%)Control n (%)
Tenure status of main house 
 Owner 1,271 (87.8) 1,265 (88.6) 2,536 (88.2) 
 Employer-provided (subsidized) 2 (0.1) 4 (0.3) 6 (0.2) 
 Employer-provided (free) 5 (0.3) 10 (0.7) 15 (0.5) 
 Rented 143 (9.9) 119 (8.3) 262 (9.1) 
 Free of charge 25 (1.7) 28 (2.0) 53 (1.8) 
 Nomads 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 
Floor material of main house 
 Earth, sand, dung 493 (34.0) 723 (50.7) 1,216 (42.3) 
 Wood planks, bamboo 15 (1.0) 23 (1.6) 38 (1.3) 
 Parquet or polished wood 2 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 5 (0.2) 
 Vinyl or asphalt strips 6 (0.4) 2 (0.1) 8 (0.3) 
 Ceramic tiles, terrazzo 40 (2.8) 28 (2.0) 68 (2.4) 
 Cement 887 (61.3) 645 (45.2) 1,532 (53.3) 
 Carpet 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 
 Other 3 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 5 (0.2) 
Wall material of main house 
 Grass 12 (0.8) 10 (0.7) 22 (0.8) 
 Poles and mud 181 (12.5) 301 (21.1) 482 (16.8) 
 Sun-dried bricks 266 (18.4) 296 (20.7) 562 (19.5) 
 Baked/Burnt bricks 712 (49.2) 633 (44.4) 1,345 (46.8) 
 Cement blocks 256 (17.7) 172 (12.1) 428 (14.9) 
 Stones 11 (0.8) 4 (0.3) 15 (0.5) 
 Other 10 (0.7) 11 (0.8) 21 (0.7) 
Main roofing material of main house 
 Grass/Thatch/Mud 135 (9.3) 238 (16.7) 373 (13.0) 
 Iron sheet 1,305 (90.1) 1,184 (83.0) 2,489 (86.6) 
 Tiles 4 (0.3) 2 (0.1) 6 (0.2) 
 Concrete 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 
 Other 3 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 6 (0.2) 
Households takes measures to ensure safety of drinking water 
 Yes 843 (58.2) 645 (44.5) 1,488 (51.8) 
 No 597 (41.2) 768 (53.0) 1,365 (47.5) 
 Not sure 8 (0.6) 14 (1.0) 22 (0.8) 
Measures taken to ensure safety of drinking water n = 843 n = 645 n = 1,488 
 Boiling 706 (83.7) 533 (82.6) 1,239 (83.3) 
 Use water filter 26 (3.1) 29 (4.5) 55 (3.7) 
 Strain through a cloth 46 (5.5) 44 (6.8) 90 (6.0) 
 Treat with chemicals (e.g. water guard) 57 (6.8) 32 (5.0) 89 (6.0) 
 Use bottled water 1 (0.1) 4 (0.6) 5 (0.3) 
 Other 7 (0.8) 3 (0.5) 10 (0.7) 
VariableVillage status
Combined n (%)
Intervention n (%)Control n (%)
Tenure status of main house 
 Owner 1,271 (87.8) 1,265 (88.6) 2,536 (88.2) 
 Employer-provided (subsidized) 2 (0.1) 4 (0.3) 6 (0.2) 
 Employer-provided (free) 5 (0.3) 10 (0.7) 15 (0.5) 
 Rented 143 (9.9) 119 (8.3) 262 (9.1) 
 Free of charge 25 (1.7) 28 (2.0) 53 (1.8) 
 Nomads 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 
Floor material of main house 
 Earth, sand, dung 493 (34.0) 723 (50.7) 1,216 (42.3) 
 Wood planks, bamboo 15 (1.0) 23 (1.6) 38 (1.3) 
 Parquet or polished wood 2 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 5 (0.2) 
 Vinyl or asphalt strips 6 (0.4) 2 (0.1) 8 (0.3) 
 Ceramic tiles, terrazzo 40 (2.8) 28 (2.0) 68 (2.4) 
 Cement 887 (61.3) 645 (45.2) 1,532 (53.3) 
 Carpet 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 
 Other 3 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 5 (0.2) 
Wall material of main house 
 Grass 12 (0.8) 10 (0.7) 22 (0.8) 
 Poles and mud 181 (12.5) 301 (21.1) 482 (16.8) 
 Sun-dried bricks 266 (18.4) 296 (20.7) 562 (19.5) 
 Baked/Burnt bricks 712 (49.2) 633 (44.4) 1,345 (46.8) 
 Cement blocks 256 (17.7) 172 (12.1) 428 (14.9) 
 Stones 11 (0.8) 4 (0.3) 15 (0.5) 
 Other 10 (0.7) 11 (0.8) 21 (0.7) 
Main roofing material of main house 
 Grass/Thatch/Mud 135 (9.3) 238 (16.7) 373 (13.0) 
 Iron sheet 1,305 (90.1) 1,184 (83.0) 2,489 (86.6) 
 Tiles 4 (0.3) 2 (0.1) 6 (0.2) 
 Concrete 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 
 Other 3 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 6 (0.2) 
Households takes measures to ensure safety of drinking water 
 Yes 843 (58.2) 645 (44.5) 1,488 (51.8) 
 No 597 (41.2) 768 (53.0) 1,365 (47.5) 
 Not sure 8 (0.6) 14 (1.0) 22 (0.8) 
Measures taken to ensure safety of drinking water n = 843 n = 645 n = 1,488 
 Boiling 706 (83.7) 533 (82.6) 1,239 (83.3) 
 Use water filter 26 (3.1) 29 (4.5) 55 (3.7) 
 Strain through a cloth 46 (5.5) 44 (6.8) 90 (6.0) 
 Treat with chemicals (e.g. water guard) 57 (6.8) 32 (5.0) 89 (6.0) 
 Use bottled water 1 (0.1) 4 (0.6) 5 (0.3) 
 Other 7 (0.8) 3 (0.5) 10 (0.7) 
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