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Table 9

The eight most sensitive SWAT parameters in the Himalayan basins. Numbers in parentheses show the fitted values of parameters in the corresponding basin

RankIndrawatiMelamchiTamakoshiTamor
TLAPS (−7) TLAPS (−7) TLAPS (−5.5) Alpha_BF (0.185) 
SFTMP (−0.5) SFTMP (−0.5) CH_K1 (79) CH_N2 (0.019) 
SMTMP (1.5) SMTMP (1.5) SFTMP (0.2) CH_K2 (349.15) 
Lat_Time (30) Lat_Time (30) CN2 (60–85) GWQMN (774.2) 
CANMX (3) CANMX (3) PLAPS (±150) SNO50COV (0.536) 
Alpha_BF (0.0128) Alpha_BF (0.0128) SOL_K (190) TIMP (0.672) 
GW_Delay (500) GW_Delay (500) SMFMX (9) ECPO (0.767) 
SNO50COV (0.5) SNO50COV (0.5) CH_K2 (267) SOL_K (36–260) 
RankIndrawatiMelamchiTamakoshiTamor
TLAPS (−7) TLAPS (−7) TLAPS (−5.5) Alpha_BF (0.185) 
SFTMP (−0.5) SFTMP (−0.5) CH_K1 (79) CH_N2 (0.019) 
SMTMP (1.5) SMTMP (1.5) SFTMP (0.2) CH_K2 (349.15) 
Lat_Time (30) Lat_Time (30) CN2 (60–85) GWQMN (774.2) 
CANMX (3) CANMX (3) PLAPS (±150) SNO50COV (0.536) 
Alpha_BF (0.0128) Alpha_BF (0.0128) SOL_K (190) TIMP (0.672) 
GW_Delay (500) GW_Delay (500) SMFMX (9) ECPO (0.767) 
SNO50COV (0.5) SNO50COV (0.5) CH_K2 (267) SOL_K (36–260) 

Note: TLAPS: temperature lapse rate (°C/km); SFTMP: snowfall temperature; SMTMP: snowmelt base temperature; SMFM: maximum melt rate for snow during year (occurs on summer solstice); PLAPS: precipitation lapse rate (mm/km); Lat_Time: lateral flow travel time; CANMX: maximum canopy storage; Alpha_BF: baseflow alpha factor (days); GW_Delay: groundwater delay (days); SNO50COV: snow water equivalent that corresponds to 50% snow cover; CH_K1: effective hydraulic conductivity in tributary channel alluvium; CN2: initial runoff SCS curve number; SOL_K: saturated hydraulic conductivity (mm/hr); CH_K2: effective hydraulic conductivity in main channel (mm/h); CH_N2: Manning's n value for the main channel; GWQMN: threshold depth in the shallow aquifer required for return flow to occur; TIMP: snowpack temperature lag factor; ECPO: plant uptake compensation factor.

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