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Table 2

Types of reuse appropriate for increasing levels of treatment (EPA 2012)

Treatment levelIncreasing levels of treatment
PrimarySecondaryFiltration and disinfectionAdvanced
Process Sedimentation Biological oxidation and disinfection Chemical coagulation, biological or chemical nutrient removal, filtration, and disinfection Activated carbon, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation process, soil aquifer treatment, etc. 
End use No uses recommended Surface irrigation of orchard and vineyard Landscape and golf course irrigation IPR including groundwater reservoir augmentation and potable 
Non-food crop irrigation Toilet flushing 
Restricted landscape impoundments Vehicle washing 
Groundwater recharge of non-potable aquifer Food crop irrigation 
Wetlands, wildlife habitat, stream augmentation Unrestricted recreational impoundment 
Industrial cooling process Industrial system 
Human exposure Increasing acceptable levels of human exposure  
Cost Increasing levels of cost  
Treatment levelIncreasing levels of treatment
PrimarySecondaryFiltration and disinfectionAdvanced
Process Sedimentation Biological oxidation and disinfection Chemical coagulation, biological or chemical nutrient removal, filtration, and disinfection Activated carbon, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation process, soil aquifer treatment, etc. 
End use No uses recommended Surface irrigation of orchard and vineyard Landscape and golf course irrigation IPR including groundwater reservoir augmentation and potable 
Non-food crop irrigation Toilet flushing 
Restricted landscape impoundments Vehicle washing 
Groundwater recharge of non-potable aquifer Food crop irrigation 
Wetlands, wildlife habitat, stream augmentation Unrestricted recreational impoundment 
Industrial cooling process Industrial system 
Human exposure Increasing acceptable levels of human exposure  
Cost Increasing levels of cost  
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