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Table 6

Hazards and sub-hazards of wastewater reuse alternatives of Ekbatan system

(1) Environmental hazards(2) Social and health hazards(3) Economic hazards
(1-1) Contamination of soil resources (2-1) Disease outbreaks caused by direct or indirect wastewater use (3-1) Significant costs of system operation and maintenance and impossibility to provide them at the right time 
(1-2) Contamination of surface water resources (2-2) Social resistance in form of no use of wastewater or no use of products or places where wastewater is used (3-2) No access to the required raw materials and technology 
(1-3) Contamination of underground water resources (2-3) Social protest against inappropriate function of wastewater reuse system (3-3) No revenue streams from wastewater sale or other by-products of wastewater reuse system 
(1-4) Contamination of food crops (2-4) An undesirable prospect of urban, tourism, and recreational areas (due to bad odor and presence of insects) (3-4) Physical and hydraulic system failure 
(1-5) Harmful effects on reproduction and development of non-edible plants   
(1-6) Harmful effects on animals   
(1-7) Ecosystem imbalance (increase or decrease of a specific species)   
(1) Environmental hazards(2) Social and health hazards(3) Economic hazards
(1-1) Contamination of soil resources (2-1) Disease outbreaks caused by direct or indirect wastewater use (3-1) Significant costs of system operation and maintenance and impossibility to provide them at the right time 
(1-2) Contamination of surface water resources (2-2) Social resistance in form of no use of wastewater or no use of products or places where wastewater is used (3-2) No access to the required raw materials and technology 
(1-3) Contamination of underground water resources (2-3) Social protest against inappropriate function of wastewater reuse system (3-3) No revenue streams from wastewater sale or other by-products of wastewater reuse system 
(1-4) Contamination of food crops (2-4) An undesirable prospect of urban, tourism, and recreational areas (due to bad odor and presence of insects) (3-4) Physical and hydraulic system failure 
(1-5) Harmful effects on reproduction and development of non-edible plants   
(1-6) Harmful effects on animals   
(1-7) Ecosystem imbalance (increase or decrease of a specific species)   
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