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Table 10

Classification of wastewater reuse system vulnerability

Explanations
VulnerabilityNumerical valueEnvironmental (Metcalf et al. (2003); EPA (2009); Ivarsson & Olander (2011))Social-health (Peavy et al. (1985))Economic
Very low 0–0.25 Minor changes in environment which can be fully solved by self-purification capacity of nature Diseases without the need for special treatment and hospitalization such as very mild skin or lung complications <1 billion Rial economic loss 
Low 0.15–0.45 Relatively minor contamination of water and soil resources not leading to toxicity of widespread areas Diseases with short-terms side effects such as mild gastrointestinal effects (nausea and vomiting), short-term skin and lung side effects 1–3 billion Rial economic loss 
Medium 0.35–0.65 Contamination of non-edible plants as well as toxicity of a huge part of soil and water resources Relatively severe gastrointestinal (cholera, typhoid, etc.), lung, and skin diseases 3–6 billion Rial economic loss 
High 0.55–0.85 Destruction of a relatively large part of ecosystem and drastic changes of water and soil resources Incurable diseases such as hepatitis, polio, and different types of cancer 6–10 billion Rial economic loss 
Very high 0.75–1 Irreparable environmental pollution, complete change of soil structure and uselessness of water resources Death and mortality More than 10 billion Rial economic loss 
Explanations
VulnerabilityNumerical valueEnvironmental (Metcalf et al. (2003); EPA (2009); Ivarsson & Olander (2011))Social-health (Peavy et al. (1985))Economic
Very low 0–0.25 Minor changes in environment which can be fully solved by self-purification capacity of nature Diseases without the need for special treatment and hospitalization such as very mild skin or lung complications <1 billion Rial economic loss 
Low 0.15–0.45 Relatively minor contamination of water and soil resources not leading to toxicity of widespread areas Diseases with short-terms side effects such as mild gastrointestinal effects (nausea and vomiting), short-term skin and lung side effects 1–3 billion Rial economic loss 
Medium 0.35–0.65 Contamination of non-edible plants as well as toxicity of a huge part of soil and water resources Relatively severe gastrointestinal (cholera, typhoid, etc.), lung, and skin diseases 3–6 billion Rial economic loss 
High 0.55–0.85 Destruction of a relatively large part of ecosystem and drastic changes of water and soil resources Incurable diseases such as hepatitis, polio, and different types of cancer 6–10 billion Rial economic loss 
Very high 0.75–1 Irreparable environmental pollution, complete change of soil structure and uselessness of water resources Death and mortality More than 10 billion Rial economic loss 

Rial is the currency of Iran. 1 USD is approximately equal to 30,000 Rial (in 2015).

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