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Table 1

Summary of performance of gas phase odour abatement systems

 CompoundBiofilter
Biotrickling filter
Activated carbon
Removal (%)ConsistencyRemoval (%)ConsistencyRemoval (%)Consistency
Volatile sulfurous compounds Hydrogen sulfide 83 to >99 Good 80 to >99 Good 79 to 100 (22 outlier) Good 
Carbon disulfide 13 to 100 Poor 0 to 40 Poor −∞ to 41 Poor 
Methyl mercaptan 62 to 100 Medium 56 to 78 (−638 outlier) Good 77 to 100 (52 outlier) Good 
Dimethyl sulfide 0 to 100 Poor Poor (3 samples from 1 study) −75 to 93 Poor 
Dimethyl disulfide 97 to >99 (17 outlier) Medium nd – −2,254 to 100 Poor 
Dimethyl trisulfide 51.5 to 100 Poor (6 samples in 1 study) nd – −545 to 100 Poor (19 samples in 1 study with big spread) 
Volatile organic compounds Benzene 25 to 100 Medium 0 to 59 (Generally 20 to 30) Medium 86 to 99 Good 
Xylenes −175 to 100 Poor 0 to 57 (92 is outlier) Medium 88 to 100 (outlier study to as low as −7,713) Medium 
Toluene 43 to 100 Medium 0 to 85 Medium 90 to 100 (2 outliers as low as −852) Medium 
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene nd – nd – −∞ to 100 Poor 
Ethylbenzene 84 to 88 Poor 21 Poor −∞ to 100 Medium 
Dichlorobenzene −18 to 100 Medium 0 to 48 Medium −47 to 100 Medium 
 CompoundBiofilter
Biotrickling filter
Activated carbon
Removal (%)ConsistencyRemoval (%)ConsistencyRemoval (%)Consistency
Volatile sulfurous compounds Hydrogen sulfide 83 to >99 Good 80 to >99 Good 79 to 100 (22 outlier) Good 
Carbon disulfide 13 to 100 Poor 0 to 40 Poor −∞ to 41 Poor 
Methyl mercaptan 62 to 100 Medium 56 to 78 (−638 outlier) Good 77 to 100 (52 outlier) Good 
Dimethyl sulfide 0 to 100 Poor Poor (3 samples from 1 study) −75 to 93 Poor 
Dimethyl disulfide 97 to >99 (17 outlier) Medium nd – −2,254 to 100 Poor 
Dimethyl trisulfide 51.5 to 100 Poor (6 samples in 1 study) nd – −545 to 100 Poor (19 samples in 1 study with big spread) 
Volatile organic compounds Benzene 25 to 100 Medium 0 to 59 (Generally 20 to 30) Medium 86 to 99 Good 
Xylenes −175 to 100 Poor 0 to 57 (92 is outlier) Medium 88 to 100 (outlier study to as low as −7,713) Medium 
Toluene 43 to 100 Medium 0 to 85 Medium 90 to 100 (2 outliers as low as −852) Medium 
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene nd – nd – −∞ to 100 Poor 
Ethylbenzene 84 to 88 Poor 21 Poor −∞ to 100 Medium 
Dichlorobenzene −18 to 100 Medium 0 to 48 Medium −47 to 100 Medium 

nd – Not detected.

Good – Multiple studies, greater than 5, with 75% or more of studies showing the same outcome.

Medium – Multiple studies, greater than 3, showing different outcomes or few studies, less than 3, showing the same outcome.

Poor – Few studies, generally less than 3, showing different outcomes.

Negative values given where outlet concentration was greater than inlet concentration.

−∞ – Outlet concentration was detected with none detected on the inlet.

Refer to Supplementary Material for references and inlet concentrations (available with the online version of this paper).

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