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Table 4

Summary table of the suitability of fluorometers for selected cyanobacterial species of interest and recommended alert level frameworks

ParameterAlert level Framework (ALF)Range/ThresholdCyanobacterial species of interestIs the fluorometer sensitive enough to detect the cyanobacteria cells for the following alert limits: Yes or No, if Yes – for each LoD method what is the lowest alert level the fluorometers can detect?
ATEXO2MFV6600
Precision: Limits of detection (LoD) Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (NHMRC 2013) Detection level: 1,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa No 
D. circinale No 
C. raciborskii Yes – LoD2 No 
Management Strategies for Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) and their Toxins: A Guide for Water Utilities (Newcombe et al. 2009) Alert level 1: 2,000–6,500 cells/mL; Alert level 2: 6,500–65,000 cells/mL; Alert level 3: ≥ 65,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 3 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 
Cyanobacterial Incident Management Framework (CIMF) and Alert Levels Framework for cyanobacteria Chorus & Bartram (1999), Du Preez & Van Baalen (2006)  Alert level 1: ≥ 2,000 cells of cyanobacteria; Alert level 2: ≥ 100,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 and LoD3 – Alert level 1 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 1 LoD3 – Alert level 1 LoD3 – Alert level 1 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 and LoD3 – Alert level 1 
The development of an alert levels and response framework for the Management of blue-green algal blooms Burch (1993)  Alert level 1: 500–2,000 cells/mL; Alert level 2: 2,000–15,000 cells/mL; Alert level 3: ≥ 15,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 2 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 2 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 
Draft national protocol for the monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins (Burch et al. 2003) Detect level: 500 cells/mL; Alert level 1: > 2,000 cells/mL; Alert level 2: > 5,000 cells/mL; Alert level 3: > 50,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Detect level 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 2 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 
Fluorometer accuracy in the presence of interference sources Measurement inaccuracy tendency Mixed: over- and underestimation Overestimation Mixed: over- and underestimation Overestimation 
Measurement inaccuracya (in terms of equivalent biovolume) 
Can potentially apply corrections to reduce measurement inaccuracy Yes Yes Yes Yes 
ParameterAlert level Framework (ALF)Range/ThresholdCyanobacterial species of interestIs the fluorometer sensitive enough to detect the cyanobacteria cells for the following alert limits: Yes or No, if Yes – for each LoD method what is the lowest alert level the fluorometers can detect?
ATEXO2MFV6600
Precision: Limits of detection (LoD) Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (NHMRC 2013) Detection level: 1,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa No 
D. circinale No 
C. raciborskii Yes – LoD2 No 
Management Strategies for Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) and their Toxins: A Guide for Water Utilities (Newcombe et al. 2009) Alert level 1: 2,000–6,500 cells/mL; Alert level 2: 6,500–65,000 cells/mL; Alert level 3: ≥ 65,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 3 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 
Cyanobacterial Incident Management Framework (CIMF) and Alert Levels Framework for cyanobacteria Chorus & Bartram (1999), Du Preez & Van Baalen (2006)  Alert level 1: ≥ 2,000 cells of cyanobacteria; Alert level 2: ≥ 100,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 and LoD3 – Alert level 1 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 1 LoD3 – Alert level 1 LoD3 – Alert level 1 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 and LoD3 – Alert level 1 
The development of an alert levels and response framework for the Management of blue-green algal blooms Burch (1993)  Alert level 1: 500–2,000 cells/mL; Alert level 2: 2,000–15,000 cells/mL; Alert level 3: ≥ 15,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 2 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 2 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 
Draft national protocol for the monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins (Burch et al. 2003) Detect level: 500 cells/mL; Alert level 1: > 2,000 cells/mL; Alert level 2: > 5,000 cells/mL; Alert level 3: > 50,000 cells/mL M. aeruginosa Yes 
LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Detect level 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 
D. circinale Yes 
LoD2 – Alert level 2 LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 3 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 2 LoD3 – Alert level 2 
C. raciborskii Yes 
LoD2 – Detect level LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 LoD2 – Alert level 1 
LoD3 – Alert level 2 
Fluorometer accuracy in the presence of interference sources Measurement inaccuracy tendency Mixed: over- and underestimation Overestimation Mixed: over- and underestimation Overestimation 
Measurement inaccuracya (in terms of equivalent biovolume) 
Can potentially apply corrections to reduce measurement inaccuracy Yes Yes Yes Yes 

aRelative magnitude of measurement inaccuracy where 1 refers to the fluorometer which was the most accurate and 4 refers to the fluorometer that was the least accurate.

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