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Table 1

Real losses estimation in a water system: main influencing components (Thornton et al. 2008)

Component of infrastructureBackground (undetectable) lossesReported breaksUnreported breaks
Mains Length Number/year Number/year 
Pressure Pressure Pressure 
Min. loss rate/kma Average flowratea Average flowratea 
 Average duration Average duration 
Service reservoirs Leakage through structure Reported overflows: flowrates, duration Unreported overflows: flowrates, duration 
Service connections, main to edge of street Number Number/year Number/year 
Pressure Pressure Pressure 
Min loss rate/conn.a Average flowratea Average flowratea 
 Average duration Average duration 
Service connections after edge of street Length Number/year Number/year 
Pressure Pressure Pressure 
Min. loss rate/kma Average flowratea Average flowratea 
 Average duration Average duration 
Component of infrastructureBackground (undetectable) lossesReported breaksUnreported breaks
Mains Length Number/year Number/year 
Pressure Pressure Pressure 
Min. loss rate/kma Average flowratea Average flowratea 
 Average duration Average duration 
Service reservoirs Leakage through structure Reported overflows: flowrates, duration Unreported overflows: flowrates, duration 
Service connections, main to edge of street Number Number/year Number/year 
Pressure Pressure Pressure 
Min loss rate/conn.a Average flowratea Average flowratea 
 Average duration Average duration 
Service connections after edge of street Length Number/year Number/year 
Pressure Pressure Pressure 
Min. loss rate/kma Average flowratea Average flowratea 
 Average duration Average duration 

aAt standard pressure.

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