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We attempt to estimate the human impact on the long-term runoff variability using the correlation between the human activity factors and the weights obtained by decomposing the original runoff series into EOFs. A significant (though low) correlation between the studied factors and the weights are detected (Table 4).

Table 4

Correlations between the weights and human activity factors (significant value shown in bold)

Weight1234
Weihe 
 Population level 0.34 0.02 0.01 0.35 
 Cultivated land −0.29 0.11 0.02 0.38 
 Irrigated area 0.17 0.21 0.07 0.40 
 Water supply 0.39 0.01 0.05 0.34 
 Grain yield 0.31 0.09 0.11 0.32 
 GDP 0.21 −0.15 −0.09 0.18 
 Afforested area 0.01 0.28 0.15 0.34 
 Hydroelectricity 0.18 0.05 0.03 0.36 
Reservoir storage* 0.36 0.57 0.47 0.18 
Area of soil-water conservation* 0.41 0.56 0.33 0.35 
Beijiang 
 Population level 0.15 0.40 −0.03 0.45 
 Cultivated land −0.04 0.56 0.11 0.36 
 Irrigated area 0.22 0.53 −0.00 −0.00 
 Water supply 0.10 0.55 −0.07 0.45 
 Grain yield 0.34 0.12 0.06 0.53 
 GDP −0.10 0.61 −0.11 0.33 
 Afforested area 0.40 0.47 0.12 0.10 
 Hydroelectricity 0.02 0.55 −0.13 0.45 
Reservoir storage* 0.09 0.56 0.17 0.06 
Area of soil-water conservation* 0.07 0.52 0.22 0.36 
Qingjiang 
 Population level −0.01 −0.18 0.19 −0.26 
 Cultivated land −0.07 0.11 −0.23 0.29 
 Irrigated area −0.14 0.05 0.31 0.27 
 Water supply 0.07 −0.19 0.28 −0.30 
 Grain yield −0.11 −0.27 0.07 −0.24 
 GDP 0.13 −0.11 0.15 −0.20 
 Afforested area −0.23 −0.22 0.01 −0.15 
 Hydroelectricity 0.05 −0.13 0.14 −0.08 
Reservoir storage* 0.40 0.24 0.06 0.17 
Area of soil-water conservation* 0.27 0.22 0.10 0.18 
Weight1234
Weihe 
 Population level 0.34 0.02 0.01 0.35 
 Cultivated land −0.29 0.11 0.02 0.38 
 Irrigated area 0.17 0.21 0.07 0.40 
 Water supply 0.39 0.01 0.05 0.34 
 Grain yield 0.31 0.09 0.11 0.32 
 GDP 0.21 −0.15 −0.09 0.18 
 Afforested area 0.01 0.28 0.15 0.34 
 Hydroelectricity 0.18 0.05 0.03 0.36 
Reservoir storage* 0.36 0.57 0.47 0.18 
Area of soil-water conservation* 0.41 0.56 0.33 0.35 
Beijiang 
 Population level 0.15 0.40 −0.03 0.45 
 Cultivated land −0.04 0.56 0.11 0.36 
 Irrigated area 0.22 0.53 −0.00 −0.00 
 Water supply 0.10 0.55 −0.07 0.45 
 Grain yield 0.34 0.12 0.06 0.53 
 GDP −0.10 0.61 −0.11 0.33 
 Afforested area 0.40 0.47 0.12 0.10 
 Hydroelectricity 0.02 0.55 −0.13 0.45 
Reservoir storage* 0.09 0.56 0.17 0.06 
Area of soil-water conservation* 0.07 0.52 0.22 0.36 
Qingjiang 
 Population level −0.01 −0.18 0.19 −0.26 
 Cultivated land −0.07 0.11 −0.23 0.29 
 Irrigated area −0.14 0.05 0.31 0.27 
 Water supply 0.07 −0.19 0.28 −0.30 
 Grain yield −0.11 −0.27 0.07 −0.24 
 GDP 0.13 −0.11 0.15 −0.20 
 Afforested area −0.23 −0.22 0.01 −0.15 
 Hydroelectricity 0.05 −0.13 0.14 −0.08 
Reservoir storage* 0.40 0.24 0.06 0.17 
Area of soil-water conservation* 0.27 0.22 0.10 0.18 

*Results in italics should be taken with caution due to a limited record length.

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