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The classification of meteorological stations using ArcGIS involved three sets of landscape-based parameters. The first parameter in the classification was used to approximate the water (ocean) or land influence on a weather station. Ice-free water in the winter would normally be a surface based heat source that affects temperature thresholds. Buffer zones of 15 km were created surrounding each station and then intersected with the land outline for Norway and Sweden. The area of land contained within each of the intersected buffer zones was quantified using the calculate geometry function. The following categories were established based on these results: <10% land = ocean; 10–60% land = coast; 60–90% land = fjord (inlet); >90% land = land (Table 2). These numbers were chosen for their ability to separate the near coastal stations into distinct landscapes with different relative influences of land and ocean. Some smaller islands off the main shore were categorized as ocean stations which could be separated out if another landscape category was added, or the 10% land requirement for coast was decreased.

Table 2

GIS landscape classification method using a 15 km buffer

Step 1% landStep 2 elevation rangeStep 3 WW vs LW
<10% land Ocean/water Ocean (WW and LW) 
10% < land <60% Coast (WW and LW) 
60% < land <90% Fjord (inlet) (WW and LW) 
90% < land 0–499 m Rolling (WW and LW) 
500–999 m Hill (WW and LW) 
1,000–1,500 m Mountain (WW and LW) 
Step 1% landStep 2 elevation rangeStep 3 WW vs LW
<10% land Ocean/water Ocean (WW and LW) 
10% < land <60% Coast (WW and LW) 
60% < land <90% Fjord (inlet) (WW and LW) 
90% < land 0–499 m Rolling (WW and LW) 
500–999 m Hill (WW and LW) 
1,000–1,500 m Mountain (WW and LW) 

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