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Surface water salinity shows a notable homogeneity along the studied stream reach. Thus the EC was from 458 μS/cm to 1,410 μS/cm in the flow direction and all the samples were classified as sodium bicarbonate geochemical type (Table 3, Figure 5). Measurement of winter EC in surface water (467–1,414 μS/cm) showed that there is almost no salinity change in relation to summer, indicating high influence of the fresh water that flows from the mountains.
Table 3

Major ions and stable isotope concentrations in surface water in 2013

NameDateEC (μS/cm)pHCO3−2 (mg/L)CO3H (mg/L)SO4= (mg/L)Cl (mg/L)Na+ (mg/L)K+ (mg/L)Ca+ (mg/L)Mg+ (mg/L)δ18O (‰)δ2H (‰)
S. Lagoon Summer (15/03/2013) 1,266 8.7 46 480.0 103.6 82.9 242.7 15.4 20.0 13.2 −2.0 −11.6 
 AZ1 458 8.2 185.0 43.3 16.6 30.9 5.3 38.4 4.9 −5.2 −26.6 
 AZ2 1,050 8.5 21.82 502.5 88.0 42.9 273.0 7.0 12.0 21.0 −5.1 −25.9 
 AC1 1,025 8.4 9.70 490.0 107.8 42.9 257.8 5.6 16.0 8.8 −5.1 −25.5 
 A1 1,212 8.9 26.7 535.0 123.4 51.4 282.1 9.2 20.0 12.7 −4.9 −24.7 
 A2 1,272 8.8 26.7 532.5 113.0 60.0 291.2 9.8 19.2 17.1 −4.4 −23.5 
 A3 1,333 8.2 625.0 88.9 71.4 264.9 10.8 24.0 12.2 −4.5 −23.1 
 A4 1,368 8.8 33.9 517.5 102.5 71.4 315.5 11.0 21.6 14.6 −4.5 −23.3 
 A5 1,410 8.6 12.1 565.0 113.0 82.9 291.2 17.6 20.0 17.1 −4.2 −23.0 
S. Lagoon Winter (12/08/2013) 1,266 8.7 46 480.0 103.6 82.9 242.7 15.4 20.0 13.2 −2.0 −11.6 
 AZ1 467 8.2 187.5 47.2 17.1 36.4 5.4 40.0 4.9 −5.3 −26.7 
 AZ2 1,080 8.7 21.82 527.5 92.5 45.7 273.0 7.2 13.6 21.0 −4.7 −23.6 
 AC1 1,076 8.6 12.12 512.5 123.4 45.7 257.8 5.7 17.6 8.8 −4.7 −24.4 
 A1 1,270 8.2 585.0 144.2 57.1 297.3 7.3 17.6 8.8 −4.4 −22.9 
 A2 1,329 8.3 585.0 144.2 62.9 308.4 7.6 17.6 16.1 −4.3 −22.1 
 A3 1,406 8.4 4.85 590.0 144.2 91.4 328.6 7.8 17.6 20.5 −4.3 −22.7 
 A4 1,410 8.5 12.12 575.0 144.2 97.1 328.6 7.8 17.6 16.6 −4.2 −22.9 
 A5 1,414 8.6 12.12 575.0 113.0 102.9 328.6 7.9 17.6 29.3 −4.1 −21.8 
NameDateEC (μS/cm)pHCO3−2 (mg/L)CO3H (mg/L)SO4= (mg/L)Cl (mg/L)Na+ (mg/L)K+ (mg/L)Ca+ (mg/L)Mg+ (mg/L)δ18O (‰)δ2H (‰)
S. Lagoon Summer (15/03/2013) 1,266 8.7 46 480.0 103.6 82.9 242.7 15.4 20.0 13.2 −2.0 −11.6 
 AZ1 458 8.2 185.0 43.3 16.6 30.9 5.3 38.4 4.9 −5.2 −26.6 
 AZ2 1,050 8.5 21.82 502.5 88.0 42.9 273.0 7.0 12.0 21.0 −5.1 −25.9 
 AC1 1,025 8.4 9.70 490.0 107.8 42.9 257.8 5.6 16.0 8.8 −5.1 −25.5 
 A1 1,212 8.9 26.7 535.0 123.4 51.4 282.1 9.2 20.0 12.7 −4.9 −24.7 
 A2 1,272 8.8 26.7 532.5 113.0 60.0 291.2 9.8 19.2 17.1 −4.4 −23.5 
 A3 1,333 8.2 625.0 88.9 71.4 264.9 10.8 24.0 12.2 −4.5 −23.1 
 A4 1,368 8.8 33.9 517.5 102.5 71.4 315.5 11.0 21.6 14.6 −4.5 −23.3 
 A5 1,410 8.6 12.1 565.0 113.0 82.9 291.2 17.6 20.0 17.1 −4.2 −23.0 
S. Lagoon Winter (12/08/2013) 1,266 8.7 46 480.0 103.6 82.9 242.7 15.4 20.0 13.2 −2.0 −11.6 
 AZ1 467 8.2 187.5 47.2 17.1 36.4 5.4 40.0 4.9 −5.3 −26.7 
 AZ2 1,080 8.7 21.82 527.5 92.5 45.7 273.0 7.2 13.6 21.0 −4.7 −23.6 
 AC1 1,076 8.6 12.12 512.5 123.4 45.7 257.8 5.7 17.6 8.8 −4.7 −24.4 
 A1 1,270 8.2 585.0 144.2 57.1 297.3 7.3 17.6 8.8 −4.4 −22.9 
 A2 1,329 8.3 585.0 144.2 62.9 308.4 7.6 17.6 16.1 −4.3 −22.1 
 A3 1,406 8.4 4.85 590.0 144.2 91.4 328.6 7.8 17.6 20.5 −4.3 −22.7 
 A4 1,410 8.5 12.12 575.0 144.2 97.1 328.6 7.8 17.6 16.6 −4.2 −22.9 
 A5 1,414 8.6 12.12 575.0 113.0 102.9 328.6 7.9 17.6 29.3 −4.1 −21.8 
Figure 5

Water geochemical type in the stream and the unconfined aquifer.

Figure 5

Water geochemical type in the stream and the unconfined aquifer.

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