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Computed values of the Bartlett test of sphericity which were greater than 0.5 and the KMO results with sig. <0.001 suggest that the data set was suitable for FA. Table 3 shows the Varimax rotated factor matrix consisting of the component factors, loadings of variables on each factor, and percentage of data variance explained by each factor. Four extracted factors described 76.20% of the data set variance. Factor 1 showed the highest factor loadings on Sr2+ (0.928) and Mg2+ (0.909), high factor loading on Ca2+ (0.749) and EC (0.696), and it explained 25.67% of the total variance (Figure 4(a)). Factor 2, which explained 18.76% of the total variance, exhibited high positive loadings on (0.825) and UV254 (0.824) and negative loading on F (−0.594). Factor 3 accounting for a similar amount of variance to Factor 2, showed high and positive loadings on both Na+ (0.791) and (0.761) (Figure 4(b)). Factor 4 explained 15.75% of the total variance, with major positive loadings on Cl (0.717) and K+ (0.686). Communalities were the results of sums of factors' squares, which meant that the proportion of variance can be explained by the extracted factors, and the rest is defined as a specific factor; both contribute to the variance of variables. Calculated results of communalities suggested that over than 65% of the variances for all variables except for and K+ can be explained by the four extracted factors, with EC (0.943) and Mg2+ (0.927) having the greatest communalities higher than 0.9.
Table 3

Results of the factor analysis (after varimax rotation)

ParameterFactor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4Communalities
 0.928 −0.086 0.094 0.056 0.881 
 0.909 0.067 0.306 −0.054 0.927 
 0.749 0.447 −0.259 0.105 0.838 
 0.696 0.341 0.555 0.187 0.943 
 0.000 0.825 0.156 0.100 0.716 
UV254 0.152 0.824 0.071 0.220 0.755 
 −0.462 −0.594 0.357 0.379 0.836 
 0.304 0.296 0.791 0.181 0.839 
 0.043 −0.147 0.761 −0.478 0.830 
 0.361 0.061 −0.169 0.717 0.677 
 −0.060 0.047 −0.022 0.686 0.477 
 0.113 −0.427 −0.442 −0.643 0.804 
 0.359 0.318 0.139 0.366 0.383 
Eigenvalues 3.337 2.439 2.082 2.047  
% of variance explained 25.67 18.76 16.02 15.75  
Cumulative % of variance 25.67 44.43 60.45 76.20  
ParameterFactor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4Communalities
 0.928 −0.086 0.094 0.056 0.881 
 0.909 0.067 0.306 −0.054 0.927 
 0.749 0.447 −0.259 0.105 0.838 
 0.696 0.341 0.555 0.187 0.943 
 0.000 0.825 0.156 0.100 0.716 
UV254 0.152 0.824 0.071 0.220 0.755 
 −0.462 −0.594 0.357 0.379 0.836 
 0.304 0.296 0.791 0.181 0.839 
 0.043 −0.147 0.761 −0.478 0.830 
 0.361 0.061 −0.169 0.717 0.677 
 −0.060 0.047 −0.022 0.686 0.477 
 0.113 −0.427 −0.442 −0.643 0.804 
 0.359 0.318 0.139 0.366 0.383 
Eigenvalues 3.337 2.439 2.082 2.047  
% of variance explained 25.67 18.76 16.02 15.75  
Cumulative % of variance 25.67 44.43 60.45 76.20  

Factor loadings >0.7 are marked by bold font.

Figure 4

Factor loadings of all of variables for: (a) factor 1 – factor 2 loadings; (b) factor 3 – factor 4 loadings.

Figure 4

Factor loadings of all of variables for: (a) factor 1 – factor 2 loadings; (b) factor 3 – factor 4 loadings.

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