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The simulated daily and mean monthly stream flows of TOPMODEL and TOPX based on TI, TI1, TI2, and TI3 were evaluated and are shown in Table 5. The CEs and Rs of the simulated mean monthly stream flow are obviously improved compared with the CEs and Rs of the simulated daily results. For the simulated daily stream flow, based on TI1, the CEs in the three study areas are equal to (in WJB) or lower than (in YLX and HQ) the corresponding CEs based on TI; based on TI2, comparing with that based on TI, the CEs in WJB and HQ are decreased, only in YLX the CE improves by 0.007 but its R is reduced by 0.007; based on TI3, the REs in YLX, WJB, and HQ are increased by 0.039, 0.011, and 0.007, respectively, but both the CEs and Rs are improved, the CEs are increased by 0.063, 0.019, and 0.003, respectively. For the simulated mean monthly stream flow, compared with the other simulated results based on TI, TI1, and TI2, the CEs and Rs based on TI3 are improved the most, the CEs in YLX, WJB, and HQ are increased by 0.036, 0.006, and 0.001, respectively. The performances of TOPMODEL and TOPX based on TI3 are all improved in the three study watersheds. TI3 is suitable for the topography-based hydrological modeling in different climatic regions. Therefore, the second hypothesis about TI′ is proved and TI3 is recommended for the revised form of TI′.

Table 5

Daily and monthly performance evaluations of TOPMODEL and TOPX

Models
TOPX
TOPX
TOPMODEL
Watersheds
(YLX:1995–2000)
(WJB:2001–2005)
(HQ:2007–2011)
CriteriaCERRECERRECERRE
Daily 
 TI 0.604 0.801 0.038 0.726 0.864 −0.288 0.780 0.885 −0.020 
 TI1 0.521 0.811 0.138 0.726 0.864 −0.288 0.757 0.877 −0.020 
 TI2 0.611 0.794 0.006 0.722 0.864 −0.330 0.668 0.857 0.130 
 TI3 0.667 0.840 0.092 0.745 0.875 −0.299 0.783 0.892 0.088 
Monthly 
 TI 0.783 0.894 0.040 0.845 0.972 −0.289 0.888 0.952 −0.212 
 TI1 0.817 0.918 0.140 0.845 0.972 −0.289 0.888 0.951 −0.021 
 TI2 0.759 0.884 0.008 0.828 0.973 −0.331 0.732 0.951 0.129 
 TI3 0.819 0.915 0.094 0.851 0.975 −0.300 0.889 0.956 0.087 
Models
TOPX
TOPX
TOPMODEL
Watersheds
(YLX:1995–2000)
(WJB:2001–2005)
(HQ:2007–2011)
CriteriaCERRECERRECERRE
Daily 
 TI 0.604 0.801 0.038 0.726 0.864 −0.288 0.780 0.885 −0.020 
 TI1 0.521 0.811 0.138 0.726 0.864 −0.288 0.757 0.877 −0.020 
 TI2 0.611 0.794 0.006 0.722 0.864 −0.330 0.668 0.857 0.130 
 TI3 0.667 0.840 0.092 0.745 0.875 −0.299 0.783 0.892 0.088 
Monthly 
 TI 0.783 0.894 0.040 0.845 0.972 −0.289 0.888 0.952 −0.212 
 TI1 0.817 0.918 0.140 0.845 0.972 −0.289 0.888 0.951 −0.021 
 TI2 0.759 0.884 0.008 0.828 0.973 −0.331 0.732 0.951 0.129 
 TI3 0.819 0.915 0.094 0.851 0.975 −0.300 0.889 0.956 0.087 

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